|Introduction||Historical Background||Chronology||Geography||Biography||Technology||Ownership and Financing||General Bibliography|
|Middle Atlantic States||New York||New York City|
New York City was first settled by Europeans when the Dutch arrived 1624. The early city was limited to Manhattan Island and had three separate water systems.
Colles Water Works - 1774
The first water works were built by Christopher Colles in 1774, but the arrival of the British Army in August 1776 ended the project while the works were being tested.
Company's 1799 Water Works and the Quest for a Better Water Supply
In 1799, the Manhattan Company was chartered to distribute water in Manhattan, and distributed well water through wooden and later cast iron pipes. The quality and quantity of their supply was never adequate and several proposals were made to implement a better water supply for the city. The City of New York built a water tank filled from a well in 1831 for fire protection, and after considering several alternatives chose to take water from the Croton River.
New York City's Water
After years of study and planning, city voters approved the Croton Aqueduct in elections held on April 14-16, 1835, by a vote of 17,330 to 5,963. Construction began in 1837 and this first, or Old Croton, Aqueduct, was placed in service on June 22, 1842 at a cost of just under $9 million. A grand celebration was held on October 14, 1842. A receiving reservoir was built in Central Park south of 86th Street (discontinued in 1925) and a distribution reservoir was located in Manhattan's Murray Hill between 41st and 42nd Street on Fifth Avenue. The water was withdrawn from the distribution reservoir on December 18, 1897 and it was torn down to make room for the New York Public Library. Some foundations of the reservoir are still visible on the lower level of the library building.
|Croton Water Celebration 1842 | Also see||View of the Distributing Reservoir | Also see Murray Hill Reservoir ||
This reservoir held 20 million imperial gallons or 24,006,000 U.S. gallons, , and when full, the water level of 114 feet, 10 inches above mean tide was enough to theoretically supply water to the top floors of every building in the built up area of the city south of that location. Unfortunately, during periods of high water demand the water would often not even reach to the second floor of many buildings at a time when taller buildings were being constructed. This forced building owners to install wood cisterns on roofs to insure a supply of water to upper floors, which are still common in the city. Water was forced into the cisterns by pumps driven by water motors, hot air engines, manufactured and natural gas, and eventually electricity. One company in 1870 proposed using windmills, but apparently only advertised once.
and Ground Plan of the Lower Part of the Croton Aqueduct,
by John B. Jervis (1843),
The aqueduct was 41 miles long and was designed to deliver a maximum of
60 million imperial gallons (72,018,000 US gallons) with an area of
53.34 square feet. The capacity was increased to 95 million US gallons
by raising the water level above the spring line. At one point
about 103 million gallons passed through the aqueduct in a single day,
but damaged the structure.
of the Croton Aqueduct by F. B. Tower (1843), Page 84.
of Public Works, Report for the Quarter ending March 31, 1881.
Harlem River crossing was one of the most contentious issues of the
original aqueduct construction. Major Douglass had proposed a high
bridge over the river, while John Martineau planned an inverted syphon
using an 8-foot diameter wrought-iron pipe. Jervis considered both
options and recommended a syphon using four 36-inch cast-iron pipes
installed on a low bridge, but strident opposition arose about the
perceived threat to navigation. The state legislature solved the
dilemma by passing a law in 1839 mandating either a high bridge or
tunnel under the channel of the river. Jervis and the Water
Commissioners chose the bridge due to uncertainties about the cost and
practicality of the tunnel. Jervis designed a 1,460 foot bridge
with 15 stone masonry arches. He designed it to carry two 48-inch
pipes, but as an economy measure installed two 36-inch pipes as he felt
that the additional capacity would not be needed for fifty years.
A temporary pipe was installed to allow water to flow until the massive
High Bridge was completed in late 1848. The two smaller pipes
reached their capacity soon after the bridge opened, and in 1861 a 90½
inch wrought-iron pipe was installed above the two smaller pipes.
Improved navigation of the river showed that the original arches
obstructed the passage of vessels, and five of the original arches
across the river were replaced by a single steel span in 1927. The water pipes were taken out
of service on December 15, 1949 and a popular pedestrian
walkway was reopened across the span in 2015.
high bridge at Harlem, N.Y.,
by N. Currier (1849)
Bridge during construction
of the large main (1861)
|Transverse Section of the High Bridge (1882)||Aerial
View of the High Bridge
showing 1927 steel arch.
New reservoirs were constructed to increase supply: Boyds Corner in 1873 and Middle Branch in 1878. A supply was brought in from the Kensico Reservoir on the Bronx River 1884, which was supplemented by additional water from the Byram River in 1896. Studies by Ellis S. Chesbrough and others showed that additional supplies were necessary and in 1883 a commission was formed to build a second aqueduct from the Croton watershed as well as additional storage reservoirs. The Second or New Croton Aqueduct was first used on July 14, 1890. Both the old and new aqueducts are shown in this map, along with the Bronx River pipeline:
of the route of the new Croton Aqueduct, present aqueduct and
Bronx River pipe line also the watersheds of the Croton, Bronx
and Byram rivers,
by Benjamin Silliman Church (1887)
City decided to develop the Catskill region as an additional water
source in the early 20th Century and proceeded to plan and construct
facilities to impound the waters of the Esopus Creek, one of the four
watersheds in the Catskills, and to deliver the water throughout the
City. This project, to develop what is known as the Catskill System,
included the Ashokan Reservoir and Catskill Aqueduct and was completed
The construction of the Schoharie Reservoir and Shandaken Tunnel was completed in 1928.
New York City studied the potential to take water from the Delaware River watershed in the mid-1920s, and the project was approved in 1928. After delays caused by New Jersey appealing to the U.S.Supreme Court, construction began in March 1937 with the Delaware Aqueduct opening in 1944, Rondout Reservoir in 1950, Neversink Reservoir in 1954. Pepacton Reservoir in 1955 and Cannonsville Reservoir in 1964. The Delaware System includes an Aqueduct completed in 1944 and several reservoirs to deliver water from the Delaware River.
|Map of the Catskill Aqueduct, from The Catskill Aqueduct and Earlier Water Supplies of the City of New York (1917), Page 8.||Map of New York City's Water Supply System from New York City Department of Environmental Protection|
New York City acquired
two other municipal water systems from the 1898 consolidation,
including Brooklyn and Long
Island City. Several other private water systems continued to
operate for many years.
Water is currently provided by the City of New York, which has provided a History of New York City's Water Supply System and a map of New York City's Water Supply System.
1835 City voters approved the Croton Aqueduct in elections held on April 14-16, 1835, by a vote of 17,330 to 5,963. A breakdown of the vote by ward is shown here. | also here |
1835. David B. Douglass was hired as Chief Engineer for the Croton Aqueduct at an annual salary of $5,000 on June 2, 1835.
1836 Board of Aldermen, February 15th, 1836: the following communication was received from his Honor the Mayor, enclosing a communication from Stephen Allen, Esq., Chairman of the Water Commissioners, and from D.B. Douglass, Esq., Chief Engineer, N.Y. Aqueduct, in relation to the practicability and probable expense of forcing by steam engines a sufficient quantity of water from the North or East River to a reservoir to be erected on Murray Hill, in aid of the present means for extinguishing fires, which was referred to the Committee on Fire and Water | also here |
1836 An act to amend an act, entitled "An act to provide for supplying the city of New-York with pure and wholesome water," passed May 2, 1834. May 26, 1836.
1836 Report of the Water Commissioners, August 1, 1836
1836. David B. Douglass fired as Chief Engineer on October 11, 1836.
1836 John B. Jervis hired as Chief Engineer of the Croton Aqueduct on October 20, 1836.
1836 Report of the Water Commissioners, August 1, 1836 to January 1, 1837.
1837 Semi-Annual report of the Water Commissioners for the city of New York, from January 1st to the 30th of June, 1837.
1837 An act to provide for such alterations in the line or route of the Croton turnpike road or highway in the county of Westchester, as many be rendered necessary by the plan adopted for supplying the city of New-York with pure and wholesome water, under and by virtue or the act for that purpose, passed May 2d, 1834. May 5, 1837.
1837 "Expected Riot and
Bloodshed," Evening Post (New York, New York), August 23, 1837,
The laborers upon the New York Aqueduct at Croton, a few miles above Sing-Sing, made a strike for higher wages on Monday last. It appears that they received heretofore about seventy cents per day, which was insufficient for their support, having to pay twenty shillings a week for board, and frequently losing two, three and four days in a week on account of bad weather. We learn that the contractors objected to advance their wages, and the most of the numbers, (about three hundred,) refused to work at the former prices. After loitering about the works during yesterday, some seemed inclined rather to work that be idle, but others refused to let them, and towards evening a general battle commenced among themselves.
The store and the life of one of the contractors was threatened, and appearance seemed to indicate a general riot. Information was soon communicated to the inhabitants of Sing Sing, when the military was ordered out and many of the citizens armed themselves with muskets from the State Prison, and marched, about eight o'clock in the evening to the scene of the action. On hearing the sound of music the laborers departed, so that peace prevailed during the night. The Sing Sing Guards had not yet returned this morning when the Telegraph left that village; but we hope that no further disturbances took place. Several individuals were much bruised, and one man barely escaped death by the discharge of a pistol by one of the contractors, the ball passing through the collar of his coat and grazing his breast. It was rumored that two men were killed, but we believe there was no foundation for that report.
1837 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners: From the 1st of July to 30th December, 1837,
1838 "Meeting of the citizens of the County of Westchester, in relation to crossing the Harlem River with the Croton aqueduct, by an inverted syphon," The Evening Post (New York, New York) March 9, 1838, Page 2. Also a memorial to the state legislature asking for a higher bridge to facilitate navigation on the river.
1838 "Croton Aqueduct," New-York American, March 13, 1838, Page 1. Anonymous letter faults the idea of a syphon to cross the Harlem River.
1838 "Croton Aqueduct," The Evening Post (New York, New York) March 13, 1838, Page 2. Two letters, the second offering support of Frederick Graff for the proposed syphon.
1838 "Croton Aqueduct," New-York American, March 16, 1838, Page 2. Written by "a friend of the present Chief Engineer."
1838 "Croton Aqueduct," New-York American, March 27, 1838, Page 3.
1838 "City Affairs," The Evening Post (New York, New York) March 29, 1838, Page 2. Letter from "Sixteenth Ward" saying "I am led to believe that no vessel ever has, or ever will, navigate that river, or, more properly creek."
1838 "Laborers want'd 7
shillings per day," Westchester Herald, April 24, 1838, Page 4.
200 laborers will find immediately employment, on the 21st and 22d sections of the Croton Aqueduct, in the Village of Sing-Sing, at the above wages. Sing-Sing, April 16, 1838. [A New York shilling was worth 12½ cents or one-eighth of a dollar.]
1838 An act to amend an act entitled "An act to provide for supplying the city of New-York with pure and wholesome water," passed May 2, 1834. March 29, 1838. Additional $3 million.
1838 Report of the Committee on Grievances, on the memorial of sundry inhabitants of the county of Westchester, in relation to crossing the Harlaem river with the Croston Aqueduct, April 5, 1838.
1838 An act to revive the charter of the Harlaem River Canal Company, and extend the time for its construction. April 18, 1838.
1838 The Committee on Roads and Canals, to whom was referred such much of the report of the Water Commissioners, as related to the construction of the Aqueduct across the Harlaem River, presented the following report. April 13, 1838. Document No. 88
1838 The following report was presented from the minority of the Committee of Roads and Canals, on the report of the Water Commissioners, relative to the construction of an aqueduct across the Harlaem River, May 7, 1838. Document No. 89.
1838 Communication from the Water Commissioners to the Common Council, May 7, 1838, Document No. 2.
Report of the Water Commissioners: From the 1st of January to 30th
June, 1838, July 2, 1838. Document No. 5.
Page 57: The work was somewhat retarded, early in the present season, by a turn-out of the laborers for an advance of wages. It commenced on section 15, under contract to Timothy N. Ferrell. The per diem pay, during the winter months, was 68½ to 75 cents; and the contractor posted a notice, that the pay, for the month of April, would be from 75 to 81½ cents. The demands of the men, however, was 87½ to 100 cents per day; and the contractor, refusing to comply with these terms, the laborers on that section, (for it did not extend to the mechanics,) quit the work in a body, and proceeded along the line of aqueduct in a tumultuous manner, from the Croton Dam to Sing Sing; compelling those who were willing to work to join them, until they amounted to several hundred persons. The prompt interference of the Magistrates of the town of Mount Pleasant, however, prevented the mob from proceeding further than the said village; and in a few days thereafter, such of the men as the contractors were willing to employ, returned to the works; while the leaders, and the most riotous of the men, were refused employment, and they accordingly left the place. The wages now paid is 87½ cents to laborers, and 150 cents to mechanics, per day.
1838 "The High Bridge," The Evening Post (New York, New York), August 15, 1838, Page 2. Letter by "Westchester Farmer."
1838 "The Question of a High Bridge over the Harlem River," The Evening Post (New York, New York), August 16, 1838, Page 2.
River Navigation," New-York
American, November 9, 1838, Page 3.
"The circumnavigation of the island of New York, derived from the God of Nature,- may it never be interfered with by any rude hand," toast by Richard Riker, president of the Harlaem River Canal Company.
1838 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners: From the 1st of July to 30th December, 1838, December 31, 1838. Document No. 25.
1839 An act prescribing the manner in which the Croton aqueduct shall pass the Harlem river. May 3, 1839.
1839 Semi-annual report of the Water Commissioners from January 1, to June 30, 1839. July 1, 1839. Document No. 10.
Croton Aqueduct," Morning
Herald (New York, New York), July 18, 1839, Page 2. |
The whole cost of the works, according to the contracts, including that for the low bridge at Harlem (the first plan) is 8,500,000 dollars; and now an additional 400,000 dollars is added for the high bridge, the contracts for which are to be completed the 29th of this month; making, according to these estimates, a little than 9,000,000 dollars, exclusive of the pipes from the distributing reservoir. There is little doubt, however, in the minds of the contractors that, before the water is delivered in the houses of our citizens, the sum of at least 12,000,000 dollars will be expended on the work. The low bridge was estimated to cost 450,000 dollars; the high bridge, 850,000 dollars, and the tunnel under the river, (the entire breadth of the stream, and not merely the channel,) differing from the Thames Tunnel by being worked through a coffer dam, was to cost 350,000 dollars. The whole of the iron pipes to carry the water across the river have been constructed for by Mr. Gouverneur Kemble, for 350,000 dollars.
The water is to be carried over Harlem River in two three feet pipes at present; which it is thought will suffice to supply the city with water for fifty or one hundred years to come, when they are to be taken up and replaced by four feet pipes. The high bridge will be composed of fifteen arches, eight of eighty feet span, and seven of fifty feet span. The aqueduct, where it crosses the Harlem River, will be very nearly one hundred and twenty feet above the level of tide water. At the dam above Sing Sing, the surface of the water is forty feet above the original surface of the river, (which rises in Putnam County, and has several sources from ponds and small lakes in the mountains,) and the bed of which has an average width of one hundred and fifty feet. The grade of the aqueduct at the dam is one hundred and sixty-six feet above tide water at New York, and the surface of the dam is twelve feet above the grade of the aqueduct. The pond of water caused by the dam will cover more than four hundred acres of ground; and the water will enter the aqueduct at the dam through a tunnel one hundred and fifty fret long. When the aqueduct is full, the water will move through it at the rate of nearly two feet a second, the conduit having an uniform descent of thirteen inches to the mile, from the dam to the distributing reservoir: where it will be able to discharge forty-nine and a half millions of imperial gallons of water every twenty-four hours. And calculating that every man, woman, and child in this city will each consume five gallons of water every twenty-four hours, (a fair estimate) the aqueduct can supply a population of ten millions, or more than the island of Manhattan *ill contain at the day of judgment.
Along the entire line of this truly noble work, the hydraulic cement is exclusively employed. This is obtained from different parts of the state, along the river and is made from a species of subcarbonate of iron, which is found in a state of close mechanical mixture with sulphate of lime, magnesia, and a small portion of silex. This stone when found is burned, like common limestone, and then ground instead of being slacked with water, put in barrels, and carefully excluded from the air; and none is allowed to be used that has been ground more than a month.
The quantity of brick used along the line may be estimated from the fact, that about 2,000,000 are required to form a mile of the aqueduct, making a total of about from 85,000,000 to 90,000,000 of brick for the entire work.
of the Croton Aqueduct," Morning
Herald (New York, New York), September 4, 1839, Page 2. | also
Therefore let the rallying cry next election be– "The removal of the Water Commissioners!"
1839 "The Water Commissioners and the Croton Aqueduct," Morning Herald (New York, New York), September 26, 1839, Page 2.
1839 "Account of the Croton Aqueduct for Supplying New York with Water," The Mechanics' Magazine, Museum, Register, Journal and Gazette, 32:24-26 (October 12, 1839). Reprinted from the Morning Herald of July 18, 1839, Page 2. (above)
1839 Semi-annual report of the Water Commissioners from July 1, to December 31, 1839. January 6, 1840. Document No. 42 | Also here |
1840 Whig Governor William H. Seward replaced the four Democratic Water Commissioners with Whig replacements. March 17, 1840. The last appointee, William W. Fox, was a former Whig but resigned less than two weeks later.
of the late Washington Irving," from The Knickerbocker: Or,
New-York Monthly Magazine, 55:439-444 (April, 1860)
Pages 442-443: Greenbush, March 17, 1840.
My DEAR SIR: In consequence of not sending to the post-office for several days, I did not receive your letter calling so lustily for help, until yesterday (Monday) after post-hours. I have nothing at hand to send to you; and I fear if I had, it would come too late. We have nothing new in these parts, excepting that there has been the deuce to pay of late in Sleepy Hollow, a circumstance, by-the-by, with which you of New-York have some concern, as it is connected with your Croton Aqueduct. This work traverses a thick wood, about the lower part of the Hollow, not far from the old Dutch haunted church: and in the heart of the wood, an immense culvert, or stone arch, is thrown across the wizard stream of the Pocantico, to support the Aqueduct. As the work is unfinished, a colony of Patlanders have been encamped about this place all winter, forming a kind of Patsylvania, in the midst of a ‘wiltherness.' Now, whether it is that they have heard the old traditionary stories about the Hollow, (which, all fanciful fabling and idle scribbling apart, is really one of the most haunted places in this part of the country,) or whether the goblins of the Hollow, accustomed only to tolerate the neighborhood of the old Dutch families, have resented this intrusion into their solitudes, by strangers of an unknown tongue, certain it is, that the poor Paddies have been most grievously harried, for some time past, by all kinds of apparitions. A wagonroad cut through the woods, and leading from their encampment past the haunted church, and so on to certain whiskey establishments, has been especially beset by the foul fiends: and the worthy Patlanders, on their way home at night, beheld misshapen monsters whisking about their paths; sometimes resembling men, sometimes boys, sometimes horses; but invariably without heads: which shows that they must be lineal descendants from the old Goblin of the Hollow. These imps of darkness have grown more and more vexatious in their pranks, occasionally tripping up or knocking down the unlucky object of their hostility. In a word, the whole wood has become such a scene of spuking and diablerie, that the Paddies will not any longer venture out of their shanties at night: and a whiskey-shop in a neighboring village, where they used to hold their evening gatherings, has been obliged to shut up, for want of custom. This is a true story, and you may account for it as you please. The corporation of your city should look to it; for if this harrying continues, I should not be surprised if the Paddies, tired of being cut off from their whiskey, should entirely abandon the goblin regions of Sleepy Hollow, and the completion of the Croton water-works be seriously retarded.
Yours Very Truly, Washington Irving
1840 "Supplemental Report of the Late Water Commissioners," March 20, 1840. Document No. 65.
1840 "The Croton Aqueduct," Morning Herald (New York, New York), March 31, 1840, Page 2. | also here |
1840 "Report of the Water Commissioners of the City of New York, April 4, 1840," Assembly Doc No. 289.
1840 The diary of
Philip Hone, 1828-1851, edited, with an introduction by Allan
Page 472: April 7, 1840. – Riot on the Water Works. There has been a flare-up amongst the Irish laborers on the Croton Aqueduct occasioned by the contractors reducing their wages from one dollar to seventy-five cents a day. Large numbers turned out, and marching down from Westchester to Harlem prevented others from working, and committed some acts of violence upon the workers.
1840 An act further to amend an act entitled "An act to provide for supplying the city of New-York with pure and wholesome water," passed May 2, 1834. April 27, 1840. Additional $3 million.
1840 "Communication of the Water Commissioners in Relation to Laying Down the Distributing Pipes," May 4, 1840. Doc. No. 72.
1840 An act to regulate the place and manner of assessing and taxing the Croton aqueduct. May 7, 1840.
1840 "Report of the Joint Special Committee on the Croton Aqueduct, June 29, 1840," Document No. 8.
1840 "Major Douglass's Work on the Last War," New-York American, July 18, 1840, Page 2.
1840 An ordinance to organize the Croton Aqueduct Department, August 5, 1840.
1840 "Message from the Mayor and Communication from the Water Commissioners", October 7, 1840. Document No. 70.
1840 "Correspondence between Samuel Stevens and Major David B. Douglass," Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer, October 28, 1840, Page 1.
1840 "Editorial comment," Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer, October 28, 1840, Page 2.
1840 "Letter from John B. Jervis," Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer, November 3, 1840, Page 2.
1840 "Letter from Stephen Allen," Morning Courier and New-York Enquirer, November 12, 1840, Page 2.
1840 "Report of the Special Committee to whom was referred the Communication from the Water Commissioners, a Report of the Croton Aqueduct Committee and an Opinion of the Counsel in relation to the power and duties of the Water Commissioners, together with accompany documents." December 22, 1840. Document No. 32
1840 "Report of the Majority of the Special Committee, on the Subject of the Ordinance creating the Aqueduct Department, December 14, 1840," Assistants' Document No. 31 | Also here |
1840 "Report of the Minority of the Special Committee on the Subject of the Croton Aqueduct, December 14, 1840," Assistants' Document No. 32. | also here | and here |
1841 The Croton dam was partially breaches during a freshet on January 7-8, 1841 and was rebuilt..
1840 Report of the Croton Aqueduct Commissioner, for the quarter ending December 31, 1840. January 11, 1841. Document No. 41
1840 Semi-annual report of the Water commissioners from 20th March, 1840, to the 31st December, 1840, January 11, 1841. Document No. 39.
1841 "Communication from the Water Commissioners with a copy of a Memorial presented by them to the Legislature," March 22, 1841. Document No. 83.
1841 "Water Commissioners vs. Common Council," Commercial Advertiser (New York, New York), April 7, 1841, Page 2.
1841 To the editors of the New York Commercial Advertiser, by S.R. [Samuel Richards]; J.R. [Jesse Richards]; J. R.
Commercial Advertiser (New York, New York), April 23, 1841, Page 2.
We received yesterday morning a communication in the form of a printed pamphlet, addressed to us from Philadelphia, in reply to an article published in the Commercial of the 7th instant, under the head of "Water Commissioners vs. Common Council." The last-mentioned article, it may be remembered, contained the opinion of a committee of the American Institute, favoring the use of re-melted iron for castings, stop cocks and water pipes, in preference to castings directly from the ore. The Philadelphia pamphlet sustains a contrary theory, and a personal friend in Philadelphia requests us to publish the whole, or such part thereof as may suit our convenience. Now we should very much like to oblige our friend; but according to our perceptions of the case, it appears that there is a rivalship between certain iron founders, which shall furnish certain articles to the New York water commissioners. Both parties, we think, intend to make a good deal of money by contracts with the commissioners; and in our humble opinion, if we are called upon to act between between them, we ought to have a chance to make a little money too. In other words, we will re-publish the pamphlet upon the customary advertising terms. We "grind axes" for pay.
1841 An act to amend an act entitled "An act to provide for supplying the city of New-York with pure and wholesome water," passed May 2, 1834. May 26, 1841. Additional $3.5 million; also confirmed that the city is responsible for distribution piping south of the Murray Hill distributing reservoir.
1841 "Report on the Organization of the Engineer Department of the Croton Aqueduct," June 4, 1841. Document No. 8
1841 Semi-annual report of the Water Commissioners from January 1, to June 30, 1841. Document No. 17
1841 Semi-annual report of the Water Commissioners from July 1, to December 31, 1841. Document No. 55
1842 An act for the preservation of the Croton Water Works in the city of New-York. April 11, 1842.
Water," New York Tribune, April 21, 1842, Page 2.
The Commissioner of the Croton Aqueduct gives notice that the water will probably be let into the distribution pipes on or before the Fourth of July next. The following is the Tariff of prices fixed for the privilege of using the Croton Water:
|Dwellings of two stories||$10|
|" of more than two stories||12|
|" on the back of lots||5|
|" with workshop or stores||12 to 20|
|Privilege of washing pavements||3|
|" bath, where there are fixtures||5|
|Boarding house||10 to 20|
|Stables, private per stall||5|
|" livery "||2|
|Charge by measure|
|Hotels, breweries, tanneries, public baths, maufactories, salting or packing houses, steam engines, and large consumers generally per hhd. of 100 gallons||5 cts|
1842 "Report on the General State of the Work on the Croton Aqueduct," July 12, 1842, by John B. Jervis.
1842 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners, August 1, 1842. Document No. 9
Croton Water Debt," New York Tribune, August 3, 1842, Page
How can this money be most conveniently and equitably raised? Three modes have been suggested, viz;
1st. By increasing the general tax on real and personal property sufficient to raise the whole amount, and allow the water to be free.
2d. By allowing as many as soon to take the water at an annual, rent and raising the balance by an increase of the general tax.
3d. By assess upon the houses and lots in all streets where distributing pipes are, or may be laid, a sufficient amount to pay the whole of the interest and other charges.
Evening Post (New York), August 12, 1842, Page 2.
The Public Health - Mineral Poisons - The Croton Water - Lead Pipe and Lead Colic by Theobald Mathew, Jr.
1842 An ordinance to regulate the Water Works of the City of New York, September 7, 1842.
of the Joint Croton Aqueduct Committee on the Rules and Regulations for
the Supply of the Croton Water," September 26, 1842.
Pages 189-190: Rules and Regulations (in part) respecting the Distribution of the Croton Water.
Public Hydrants shall be erected or prepared, under the direction of the Croton Aqueduct Board, subject to the approval of the Joint Croton Aqueduct Committee, and with due regard to prudent despatch and reasonable expenditure, at proper locations in the city, for the purpose of freely dispensing the water for personal and domestic use.
These Hydrants shall first be introduced into Districts containing the greater proportion of poor inhabitants.
Private families, who wish to be supplied with the water, shall be at the whole expense of leading the same into their dwellings, under such regulations as the Croton Aqueduct Board may determine; and shall pay in advance, for the use of the water, at and after the following rates per annum:
For an ordinary two-story Dwelling House, ten dollars.
For an ordinary Dwelling House of three stories or more, twelve dollars.
For an ordinary Dwelling House, not exceeding $1,500 in value, situated on the rear of a lot, five dollars.
The reasonable use of the water for a Bath, and for cleaning the street, windows and yard, will be permitted to private families, paying the above rates, without additional Cost.
Private families who have paid beyond these rates, will be credited for the excess on their future contracts.
By order of the Croton Aqueduct Board:
(Signed) JOHN L. LAWRENCE, President.
September 21, 1842.
1842 Description of the Croton Aqueduct,
October 14, 1842, by John Bloomfield Jervis, Chief Engineer
Page 31: The supply of the Croton, from its daily flow, aided by this reservoir, may therefore be taken with taken confidence at 35,000,000 gallons; which will be very ample for a long time to come; and when the day arrives that it will require a larger quantity, it may be obtained by constructing other reservoirs further up the stream, where there are abundant facilities for such purposes.
1842 Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board in Relation to the Ways and Means of Paying the Croton Water Debt, December 27, 1842, Document No. 58.
1842 "Croton Aqueduct", from Memoirs of the Most Eminent American Mechanics: Also, Lives of Distinguished European Mechanics ; Together with a Collection of Anecdotes, Descriptions & Etc. Relating to the Mechanic Arts by Henry Howe
1843 Resolution providing for the erection of free hydrants, April 15, 1843, from By-laws and Ordinances of the Mayor, Alderman, and Commonalty of the City of New York (1845)
1843 Journal and Documents of the Board of Assistants of the City of New-York, Volume 21, November 2, 1842 to May 18, 1843. Includes several reference and proposals for Croton water rates.
Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board, Presented, May 29th,
Page 32: The free hydrants, contemplated when the erection of the Water-works was sanctioned by the vote of the electors of the city, are now in rapid progress of introduction, about sixty being laid down each week, and a number equal to that of the public pumps will probably be placed in proper positions throughout the city, during the present season.
1843 A Memoir of the Construction, Cost, and Capacity of the Croton Aqueduct: Compiled from Official Documents : Together with an Account of the Civic Celebration of the Fourteenth October, 1842, on Occasion of the Completion of the Great Work : Preceded by a Preliminary Essay on Ancient and Modern Aqueducts by Charles King
1843 Illustrations of the Croton Aqueduct by
F. B. [Fayette Bartholomew] Tower of the Engineer Department | also here
Page 78: The Aqueduct is calculated to convey 60,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours.
Page 93: The height of the interior of the Aqueduct is 8 feet 5 1/2 inches, and the greatest width is 7 feet 5 inches. The sectional area of the interior is 53.34 square feet.
1843 The mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the city of New York, plaintiffs in error, vs. James Bailey, sen., John Bailey and Abraham Bailey, defendants in error : case made by defendants in error. | also here |
1844 Semi-Annual Report of the Water Commissioners, January 3, 1844.
1844 "Message from His Honor the Mayor, returning with his objections, the resolution abolishing the Superintendent of the Croton Aqueduct Works, adopted by this Board, January 22, 1844," February 5, 1844, and responses from the Croton Aqueduct Board, Superintendent, Water Purveyor, and Comptroller.. Board of Assistants Documents, Volume 23. This provides a detailed summary of the distribution system.
1844 "The Croton Aqueduct," by William Beach Lawrence, from Hunt's Merchant Magazine and Commercial Review 10(5):434-441 (May, 1844)
Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board May 1, 1843 to April 30, 1844,
June 17, 1844.
The number of free hydrants is about six hundred, and of fire hydrants about fifteen hundred; the latter have large orifices with a copious discharge, and were not intended to be opened except in case of fire.
1844 Semi-Annual Report of the Water Commissioners, July 1, 1844. Document No. 8.
1844 Semi-Annual Report of the Water Commissioners, January 6, 1845. Document No. 43.
1844 Reminiscences of the City of New York and Its Vicinity
1845 An ordinance in relation to the use of the Croton Water in the City of New-York, and for other purposes. Proposed.
1845 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners, June 30, 1845.
Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board, for May 1 1844 to April 30, 1845.
July 7, 1845.
Pages 125-126: One fact, susceptible of the fullest demonstration, needs to be mentioned: it is, that every person, who pays tax on real or personal estate, actually pays less money now, than he did previous to the introduction of the water; and this arises from the reduction of the rates of insurance. The tax to defray the interest of the Croton Water Debt is 20 cents on the 100 dollars, and the average reduction on the rates of insurance is at least 40 cents on the 100 dollars; and it is fair to presume, that with the number of fires that take place, even with so copious and abundant supply of water to quench them, with small loss and injury, the old rates, without this supply, would of necessity have largely increased. In illustration of the above, the Board mention the following: One of our most intelligent merchants and largest tax payers, who pays at this office water rent for near forty houses, relates the result of a calculation he made, viz.: He placed in one column the rate of insurance he paid on this property previous to the introduction of Croton Water; in another, the rate of insurance he pays at present, and added to it the Croton water tax, and subtracting the two last from the first, the result is a clear saving of 25 per cent. Another merchant states, that he insures on his stock 30,000 dollars; previous to the introduction of the water he paid 85 cents on the 100 dollars; he now pays for the same amount of property 35 cents on the hundred dollars, a saving of 150 dollars. If he paid the Croton water tax on the above amount it would be 60 dollars, leaving a nett gain of 90 dollars.
1846 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners, January 5, 1846.
1846 Quarterly Report of the President of the Croton Aqueduct Board, ending January 31, 1846.
Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board for the year May 1, 1845 to April
30, 1846, June 22, 1846. Document No. 7.
Page 78: The large increase of the revenue is owing in a great degree to the abandonment of the public hydrant system.
1846 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners, July 6, 1846. Document No. 8.
1846 Quarterly Report of the President of the Croton Aqueduct Board, to the first of August, 1846. September 14, 1846. Document No. 13
1846 Hydrographic map of the counties of New-York, Westchester and Putnam : and also showing the line of the Croton aqueduct.
1846 Description of the New-York Croton Aqueduct: In English, German and French, by Theophilus Schramke
Picture of New York in 1846, by Edward Ruggles
Pages 70-72: Croton Aqueduct. The introduction of the Croton water has had the effect of reduces the rates of insurance about 40 cents on the 100 dollars.
1846 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners, January 4, 1847. Document No. 25
1847 Quarterly Report of the President of the Croton Aqueduct Board. February 1, 1847. Document No. 30
1847 Annual Report and Quarterly Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board, September 6, 1847. No copy of this has been found.
of the Croton Aqueduct," Hunt's Merchant Magazine and Commercial
Review 17:531-532 (November, 1847)
The Croton Aqueduct Board, on the 6th of September, made their annual and quarterly reports from May 1, 1847 to August 31st, 1847.
The total length of pipes now laid and in use in 171 miles.
1848 Semi-annual Report of the Water Commissioners, July 24, 1848. Document No. 7
Report and Quarterly Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board,
September 4, 1848.
Annual report May 1, 1847 to April 30, 1848
Quarterly report from May 1, 1848 to July 31, 1848
1848 Quarterly Report of the Croton Aqueduct Board from August 1, 1848 to October 31, 1848, November 6, 1848
1848 Report of the Committee on Croton Aqueduct Department, with draft of an act for reorganization of, December 14, 1848
Report of the Water Commissioners, January 15, 1849. Document
The first line of pipes on the Aqueduct bridge across Harlem river, was completed, and the Croton water passed through it, on the 30th of May last. The second line was completed on the 15th of July, and the water passed through it soon afterwards.
The contractors then proceeded diligently with the covering of sand and earth, and with the turfing and flagging over all. This work, with the embankments and masonry around the gate-houses, &c., cleaning off and pointing such parts of the masonry of the bridge as required it, and various other items, occupied them till the end of October, at which time it was considered they had completed the work embraced in their contract.
1849 Quarterly Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department, from November 1, 1848 to January 31, 1849. February 12, 1849
act to amend the charter of the city of New-York. April 2,
§ 15. There shall be an executive department, under the denomination of the Croton aqueduct board, which shall have charge of the Croton aqueduct, and all structures and works and property connected with the supply and distribution of water to the city of New-York, and the underground drainage of the same, and of the public sewers of said city, and the collection, of the revenues arising from the sale of the water, with such other powers and duties as shall or may be prescribed by law. The chief officers thereof shall be called the president, enginneer and assistant commissioner, who together shall form the Croton aqueduct board, and hold their offices for five years.
There shall be a bureau in this department for the collection of the revenues derived from the sale of the water, and the chief officer thereof shall be called the “water register.”
act to create the "Croton Aqueduct department" in the city of New-York.
April 11, 1849.
§ 18. The common council of said city may by ordinance establish a scale of annual rents for the supply of the Croton water to be called the "regular rents," and apportioned to different classes of buildings in said city in reference to their dimensions, values exposure to fires, ordinary uses for dwellings, stores, shops, private stables and other common purposes, number of families or occupants or consumption of water, as near as may be practicable and modify, alter and amend and increase such scale from time to time, and extend it to other descriptions of buildings and establishments. Such regular rents when so established, shall be collected from the owners or occupants of all such buildings respectively, which shall be situated upon lots adjoining any street or avenue in said city in which the distributing water pipes are or may be laid, and from which they can be supplied with water. Said "regular rents" shall become a charge and lien upon such houses and lots respectively as herein provided.
§ 19. Hotels, factories, stables, livery stables and other buildings, and establishments which consume extra quantities of water, may in addition to the regular rents be charged with additional rents to be called the "extra rents."
§ 20. The regular annual rents which are not paid at the Croton aqueduct department before the first day of August in each year, shall be subject to an additional charge of five per cent., and those rates not paid before the first day of November in each year, shall be subject to an additional charge of ten per cent.
Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1849,
January 7, 1850.
Page 34: The necessity for a more rigid police, and more stringent rules regulating the use of water, will be apparent, when it is stated that very nearly the whole volume of the Croton river has been delivered in the city during many weeks of the past summer, amounting to at least sixty imperial gallons [72 wine gallons] each twenty-four hours, for every inhabitant; a supply three times greater than any legitimate use of it, would demand. It is true that the quantity may be increased at will, by the construction of new reservoirs, but before incurring this expense, economy requires that an effort be made to compel the observance of existing ordinances regulating its use. This will not b« an impossible duty, if the power of this Board be not, (as now), rendered nugatory, by the too willing action of individual members of the Common Council, and other city officers, in granting permission to keep open street hydrants for the use of favored persons and neighborhoods. The operation of the new law in relation to "water rents," which goes into effect on the first day of May next, and through which every improved lot will be charged, whether the house be supplied with water or not, renders it more than ever necessary that the whole subject be left within the control of this Department, inasmuch as it is expected that thereafter much will be claimed as a right, which has hitherto been received as a favor. In the proper administration of the water police, the comfort, as well as the interests of all are directly involved.
1849 Minutes of the Croton Aqueduct Board of the City of New York: July 18, 1849, to April 9, 1870 New York Croton Aqueduct Board
1850 "A New Project," Dollar
Newspaper (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), March 6, 1850, Page 2
It is proposed in the New York Common Council, to confer insurance powers on the Croton Aqueduct Department. It is estimated that the premiums paid for fire insurance to companies and agencies in the city, amount to about three millions of dollars annually.. The Sun of that city says, this measure, if successful, will carry with it the Croton water free to every inhabitant of the city. The premiums to be thus received by the Croton Aqueduct Department, will be sufficient not only to pay the interest on the Croton water debt, but eventually to pay the principal. At present the water rents do not pay one-half this interest.
Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1850,
December 31, 1850.
Page 48: Under these direct and sufficiently onerous responsibilities, this Board now warns the Common Council, and through it every citizen, that the last drop of water which the works in their present state can supply is now daily delivered in the city, — a supply more than equal to any, and all the legitimate wants of a population of a million and a half!
1851 An Ordinance: Establishing a Scale of Water Rents for the Croton Aqueduct Department, March 20, 1851, reprinted in Ordinances of the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New York revised A.D. 1859
1851 "The Croton Aqueduct: Its Present Condition and Finances," Report of Nicholas Dean, Esq. President of the Croton Aqueduct Department, made to the Common Council of the city of New York, from Hunt's Merchant's Magazine and Commercial Review 25(6):704-715 (December, 1851)
1851 Third Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1851, December 31, 1851.
1852 "The Croton Water -- Its action on lead, &c." from Scientific American 7(22):173 (February 14, 1852)
1852 Fourth Annual Report of the Croton
Aqueduct Department for the year 1852, January 3, 1853.
Pages 15-16: It was assumed by the Commissioners that twenty-two gallons per day for each inhabitant would be a liberal allowance, at which rate a city, containing a population of two and a half millions, might be supplied by an aqueduct of the proposed dimensions.
An experience of ten years enables us to contrast these preliminary calculations with actual results, and thus to see, with great certainty, the requirements of the future.
During the summer months, for two years past, the whole flow of the Croton river has been turned through the aqueduct, and in 1851, "for many consecutive weeks, not a drop of water passed over the dam, and the lake formed by it was gradually drawn down two feet seven and a half inches." The daily delivery in the city for a large portion of these two years, has been about thirty millions of gallons a day — often in the past year at least five millions more, drawn from the reservoirs on the island—giving to each inhabitant within the water district, (not more than four hundred and fifty thousand,) a daily supply of nearly ninety gallons.
To claim that such quantity of water is necessary for any useful purpose is simply preposterous; but assuming that no reduction in the rate is to happen, it may be well to see how long before that daily supply will begin to be diminished by want of capacity in the aqueduct itself.
Pages 23-25: No satisfactory estimate of the consumption of water at some of the manufactories and leading hotels, can be made without the intervention of a water meter. Of these, the best hitherto offered to the Department, is the invention of Samuel Huse, of Boston, ten of which are now in use in the city. To withstand the pressure, they must be made very strong, and to register accurately require to be adjusted with great precision and nicety of workmanship. They are consequently too expensive ever to come into general use for ordinary dwellings. Some of those now in operation here, costing four hundred and fifty dollars each, and ranging down to the smallest, at thirty-five dollars, exclusive of the cost of fixtures, and setting them. The expenditures for meters during the year amounts to three thousand six hundred and and fifty dollars and fourteen cents, all of which, and more, will be returned to the treasury within the first year, by the increased charges against the establishments to which they have been affixed. Such being the result, the Department considers it a duty to extend their application till all the most important consumers are brought under this satisfactory test, and to that end have inserted a moderate sum in their estimates for next year.
Meters are now in operation at the following places, and show the average daily consumption of water as set forth.
1853 Annual Report of the Board of Water
Commissioner of the City of Detroit. In 1853, the new Board
of Water Commissioners of the City of Detroit sent superintendent Jacob
Houghton, Jr. to visit and report on water works in other cities,
including New York.
Pages 23: New York - Is supplied with water from the Croton river, across which a dam forty feet in height is constructed, forming the Croton Lake, covering an area of four hundred acres, and containing, at the depth of six feet, an available supply of 500,000,000 gallons of water. From thence the water is carried, by means of a brick aqueduct, (except at the crossings of the Harlaem river bridge, and the Manhattan valley, where inverted siphons of the respective dips of twelve and one hundred and five feet are used), about thirty-eight miles in length, and having a total fall of forty-four feet, to the receiving reservoir, which covers thirty-seven acres of ground, and has a capacity of one hundred and fifty millions of gallons. From this reservoir the water is conducted through iron pipes to the distributing reservoir, from whence it is distributed in the usual manner.
This reservoir is built of stone, covers an area of four acres, and contains 21,000,000 gallons, when full to the top water line. These works are capable of supplying thirty millions of gallons per day, have cost between thirteen and fourteen millions of dollars, and supply water to more than half a million of people.
An enlargement of the works is now in contemplation, by which the quantity of water delivered daily will be materially increased.
1853 Fifth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct
Department for the year 1853, January 2, 1854.
Page 23: Water Meters. As stated in the last annual report, these instruments have increased in favor, and the consumer who could not be convinced of the quantity of water used in his establishment has now a certain and impartial umpire to determine the difference in estimates between him and the Department; and though the result in almost every case is against the consumer, yet the decision of this small, but costly apparatus, is very generally acquiesced in.
The only instrument yet in use is that of Mr. Samuel Huse, of Boston, and is believed by the Department to be accurate; and, as far as can be ascertained by the action of a working model, deposited in the office for some months, known to be so. The only objection to their far more extensive use is the expense of the apparatus, and some loss in the head of water to those who require its use, at high elevations; and, it is to be hoped, that the ingenuity of some practical inventor may yet overcome these difficulties, and render their adoption more extensive. The difference in rate, made by the instruments now in use, demonstrates that they are, notwithstanding the cost, the most valuable article for this purpose yet introduced to their notice. That the difference between the former estimated amount, and the quantity fixed by actual measurement, may be understood by the reader, a few cases are subjoined, giving the amounts paid for the six months previous to, and the six months after, the attachment of the meter.
1854 "Caution to
Merchants," New York Herald, July 27, 1856, Page 8.
On Friday night last, John J. Morrow, private watchman, discovered two stores in Warren street damaged considerably by the Croton water overflowing the basins. The water will not rise to the upper floors in day time, but at night it will, and by leaving the faucets open the basins became overflowed. In this way four stores have been overflowed in the last month.
of the Corporation of the City of New York, for the Year 1854.
Pages 215-223: Water Chronology of the City of New York
1854 Sixth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1854, January 3, 1855.
of the Joint Standing Committee on Water, together with an appendix;
made to the City Council of Baltimore, September 3d, 1855.
Page 19: January 30, 1855. Alfred Duvall testimony. Visited New York in June last; found no water in any of the public fountains, showing the supply from the Croton was exhausted; believes the Croton works are represented to furnish 35,000,000 of imperial gallons a day, equal to rather more than 42,000,000 wine gallons, as 100 imperial gallons are equal to 120.0320 of wine.
1855 Description of the New-York Croton Aqueduct: In English, German and French, 2nd edition, by Theophilus Schramke
1855 Seventh Annual Report of the Croton
Aqueduct Department for the year 1855, January 7, 1856.
Page 13: Meters have been placed on sixty-eight large buildings, and have operated beneficially in determining the quantity of water consumed, and the Board propose to extend the system in special cases of hotels, factories, &c., as circumstances may require, but have not yet become convinced that the exercise of a proper discretion would allow of their being introduced into private houses, because the expense for the whole city, and in proportion for a port, would amount, at present prices for meter and for putting up, to something like one million of dollars, and for their repairs and superintendence to more than two hundred thousand dollars per annum.
1856 Eighth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1856, January 5, 1857.
Caloric Engine," advertisement in New-York Tribune, November
18, 1857, Page 2.
Motive engine requiring no water. For filling cisterns of private houses in cities, a gas burner produces sufficient heat for actuaing the engine.
1857 The origin of the Croton Aqueduct in the City of New York, by James B Murray
1857 Ninth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1857, January 5, 1858.
1858 Tenth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1858, January 3, 1859.
1859 "Croton Water and Its Inhabitants," Harper's New Monthly Magazine 18:451-466. (March, 1859) Examining Croton water through a microscope.
1859 "Water," by Col James B. Murray, from The American Gas Light Journal 1(2):26-27 (August 1, 1859) Reminiscences of the Common Council of 1832 and of the origin of the Croton Aqueduct, from 1857 pamphlet
from The American Gas Light Journal 1(3):39 (September 1, 1859)
Something is the matter with the Croton. Everybody complains of the musty, sickish small and taste it has acquired since the first of August.
The Croton Aqueduct Department have it in serious contemplation, we understand, to introduce hydrometers into the houses of their customers, to put a stop to the enormous waste of water that is now going on.
1859 "Bursting of the the Croton Water Main," from The American Gas Light Journal 1(5):80 (November 1, 1859) On Friday, October 12, 1859.
1859 "The Croton Water Analysis," from The American Gas Light Journal 1(5):86-87 (November 1, 1859)
P. Treadwell and others vs. Myndert Van Shaick and others, 30
Barb. 444, November 13, 1859, Supreme Court of the State of New York
The Croton aqueduct board has full power under the statutes, and the ordinances of the common council, to make special charges, or fix extra rates, to be paid for the use of the water, varying in each case, according to the quantity used; and to regulate the terms on which extra allowances shall be made, and the conditions on which the water shall be used.
The board has a right to make every such arrangement, respecting an extra supply of water, a matter of agreement, subject to such terms and conditions as it shall deem necessary to impose.
The proper construction of the 27th section of the act of 1849, establishing the board, is that the legislature intended the water should not be furnished to those who would not pay for it; and that the power should exist, in the board, to withhold the supply, if the terms on which the supply was furnished were not complied with.
The board therefore has power to cut off the supply of water, for non-payment of the water-rate; whether it be the regular rents, apportioned by the size, character and use of the building, or the extra rents chargeable, in addition to the regular rents, upon buildings which consume an extra quantity of water.
1859 "Waste of Croton Water," by Thomas B. Tappan, November 12, 1859, Commissioner, Croton Aqueduct Department from The American Gas Light Journal 1(6):98 (December 1, 1859)
1859 "Waste of Croton Water," from The American Gas Light Journal 1(6):107 (December 1, 1859)
1859 Sketch of the Civil Engineering of North
America, by David Stevenson
Page 200-203: Croton Water Works
1859 Eleventh Annual Report of the Croton
Aqueduct Department for the year 1859, January 3, 1860.
Page 20: St. Nicholas Hotel. The protracted suit which was commenced in the latter part of 1855, by an injunction procured by the proprietors of this immense establishment, to prevent the water being shut off for non-payment, for their extraordinary consumption, was this month argued in the Supreme Court, on appeal from the decision of the Court below, and again decided in favor of the city. The arguments of the Court established the principles contained in the sections of the law of 1849, which relate to this matter, and assign the reasons on the strength of which they were drawn. They constitute a perfect justification of the proceedings of the Board, in relation to the application to buildings, of wa termeters, and of the price which was charged for the water, according to ordinance.
Croton," The New York Times, January 4, 1860, Page 11,
The powers of this Board are very extensive. It has charge of the Croton aqueduct, reservoirs, works and property connected with the supply and distribution of water in the city; of the construction, repair and cleaning of the sewers; of paving, repaving and repairing streets; or digging and constructing wells and the collection of revenue arising from the sale of Croton water. These duties comprehend great public interests, and affect the health and comfort of the citizen to an incalculable extent, and yet the Mayor is clothed with no power to supervise, much less direct them.
The Croton Board, constituted by a President, a Commissioner and an Engineer, compose a managing triumvirate, who are in no way amenable to any chief executive. Though those officers in the first instance derive their authority by appointment from the Mayor and Board of Aldermen, yet the tenure of office being for five years, without any provision for removal, however great the necessity, they are totally independent of the creative power. The large sums expended by this Board and the subordinates appointed by it are matters over which the Mayor has no control. It is conducted comparatively upon the same close corporation principles the Almshouse Department.
Many of its present duties having been conferred upon it by the charter of 1857, it is impossible to give a fair statement of the amount of the appropriations for it during the past ten years, nor is it possible to say with what economy it is now being administered.
1860 "Water Supply in the City of New York," from The American Gas Light Journal 1(7):137-138 (January 1, 1860) Continuation of August 1, 1859 article on the history of New York's water supply.
1860 "Temperature of Croton Water," from The American Gas Light Journal 1(10):209 (April 2, 1860)
1860 "Croton Aqueduct Department," The American Gas-Light Journal 1(10):210-211 (April 2, 1860). Underground vaults and water supply to Sing-Sing prison.
1860 Answer of A. W. Craven, chief Engineer Croton Aqueduct, to charges made by Fernando Wood, Mayor. New York, July 31, 1860, by Alfred Wingate Craven
1860 Report of the Special Committee of the Board of Aldermen appointed to investigate the sufficiency of the charges by his honor the mayor for the removal of Messrs. Craven and Tappen, of the Croton Aqueduct Department. October 6, 1860.
Water," The New York Times, October 9, 1860, Page 4. | Also
The only reasonable method of preventing waste, is to charge each house with the water that goes into that house, and the only possible method of ascertaining this quantity is to measure it, or rather, let it measure itself, like gas, by passing through a meter.
1860 "The Croton Aqueduct," by T. Addison Richards, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine 22:18-30 (December, 1860)
1860 Twelfth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1860, January 7, 1861.
1861 "Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department," The New York Times, March 2, 1861, Page 8.
1861 "The Croton Aqueduct Department," New York World, March 4, 1861, Page 6.
1861 An act to supply Sing Sing prison with Croton water, and for the sale of certain lands of the state. April 17, 1861.
1861 "Water-Works of Philadelphia and New York," American Gas-Light Journal 2:347 (May 15, 1861).
1861 "New Contract for Croton Water Mains," American Gas-Light Journal 2:351 (May 15, 1861). Messrs. Colwell & Co. of Philadelphia for 4,200 feet of five-foot pipes.
1861 "Break in the Croton Mains," American Gas-Light Journal 2:362 (June 1, 1861). May 18th on Fifth avenue, not far from where the great break occurred in December of last year.
1861 "Still Another Break in the Croton Main," American Gas-Light Journal 2:369 (June 1, 1861). May 23d in Worth street, near Church.
1861 Acts of the Legislature of the State and ordinances and resolutions of the Common Council with the rules and regulations of the Croton Aqueduct Board in relation to the subject of the introduction, supply and use of Croton water in the City of New York, from 1833 to 1861.
1861 Photograph showing installation of the large conduit on High Bridge
1861 Thirteenth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1861 , January 6, 1862.
1862 Fourteenth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1862 , January 5, 1863.
1863 Fifteenth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1863 , January 4, 1864.
1864 Sixteenth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1864 , January 6, 1865.
1865 "The Croton Aqueduct Board Judgment for the Old Commissioners," The New York Times, July 1, 1865, Page 8. | Also here |
1865 "Hanson's Self-Acting Pressure Pump," advertisement from Commercial Advertiser (New York, New York), December 2, 1865), Page 2.
1865 Colton Map of New York City. Shows receiving reservoirs in Central Park and Murray Hill distributing reservoir
Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1865,
January 1, 1866.
1866 Eighteenth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1866, January 8, 1867.
1867 "More Water Needed,"
Evening Post (New York, New York), July 27, 1867, Page 2.
At present cabinets and bath-tubs on the third floor all over town, and those on the second floor in some parts of the city, are not only useless, but worse than useless, as with the present deficient supply of water they cannot be kept sweet and clean, even when not used. In some situations the water flows into them for an hour or two soon after midnight, filling the reservoir of the water-closets - but this is an inadequate supply for an entire day's use.
1867 Nineteenth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1867, January 6, 1868.
1868 Twentieth Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1868, January 4, 1869.
1869 Twenty-First Annual Report of the Croton Aqueduct Department for the year 1869, January 3, 1870.
1870 "Croton Poisons," New York Daily Herald, April 11, 1870, Page 7. Dangers of lead cisterns and pipes.
1870 An act in relation to the Croton Aqueduct of the city of New York. April 15, 1870.
act to make further provision for the government of the city of New York.
April 26, 1870.
§ 13. The commissioner of public works is hereby authorized in his discretion to cause water meters of approved pattern and suitable for the purpose, to be designated by said commissioner, to be placed in all stores, workshops, hotels, manufactories, public edifices, at wharves, ferry-houses, stables, and in all the places in which water is furnished for business consumption by the department of public works, so that all water so furnished therein or thereat may be measured and known by the said department, and for the purpose of ascertaining the ratable proportion which consumers of water should pay for the water therein or thereat received and used. Thereafter, as shall be determined by the Commissioner of public works, the said department shall make out all bills and charges for water furnished by them to each and every consumer as aforesaid, to whose consumption a meter as aforesaid is affixed, in ratable proportion to the water consumed, as ascertained by the meter on his or her premises or places occupied or used as aforesaid. All expenses of meters, their connections and setting, water rates, and other lawful charges for the supply of Croton water shall be a lien upon the premises where water is supplied as now provided by law. Nothing herein contained shall be construed so as to remit or prevent the due collection of arrearages or charges for water consumption heretofore incurred, nor interfere with the proper liens therefor, nor of charges, or rates, or liens hereafter to be incurred for water consumption, in any dwelling-house, building or place which may not contain one of the meters aforesaid.
1870 "Water Meters - Their Usefullness and Danger," The New York Times, May 1, 1870, Page 3 | part 2 |
1870 "Experiments for making brick masonry impervious to water, tried on the walls of the back bays of the gate-houses of the new Croton Reservoir in New York, and on the brick arch of High Bridge, in 1863," by William L. Dearborn, a paper read before the Society May 4, 1870. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 1:201-208 (1872)
Water Supply," The New York Herald, July 13, 1870, Page 12.
The Water Supply. July 12, 1870. You are hereby notified that within the city limits no connection will be allowed with the Croton water pipes of any water ram, Hansom pump, or any other machine or machinery, by which the Croton water is to be used as a motive power, without first having a permit from me to make such connection.
You are also notified not to place tanks anywhere, into which the Croton water will run by its head, or be pumped or forced into by machinery driven by Croton water, with an overflow pipe, without a permit as above noted. William W. Tweed, Commissioner of Public Works.
Water," advertisement from The New York Times, July 20,
1870, Page 6.
Raised to the upper floors without waste and without cost. No objections by the Croton Board, successfully used in this City, ad indorsed by Architects and Property-Owners. Continental Windmill Co., No. 5 College-place, N.Y.
Estate Record and Builders' Guide 5(123):16 (July 23, 1870)
Page 16: Hanson's Self-Acting Pumps. These pumps are allowed to be used by the Croton Board.
to Manufacturers and Inventors of Water Meters," The Sun
(New York, New York), August 8, 1870, Page 4.
The Department of Public Works, City of New York, will on and after the 20th of August next, be prepared to examine and test the capacity and accuracy of any water meter that may be presented to it for that purpose.
William M. Tweed, Commissioner of Public Works.
1870 "Water Meters," The New York Herald, November 2, 1870, Page 12.
1871 An act to extend the distribution of Croton water through the city of New York, and to lay the necessary mains to deliver it at higher elevation; and also to provide for the expense of water meters. March 29, 1871.
1871 First annual report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the year 1870-71, April 11, 1871
Water-Meter Job," The New York Times, February 10, 1872,
Page 4. | also here
Mr. Navarro's Claim for $283,500 - A protest that is to be laid before the Board of Audit Today - How Water-Meters were tested by the ring.
1872 Second annual
report of the Department of Public Works of the
City of New York for the year ending April 10,
Pages 11-13: Except where water-meters are employed, the amount of water-rent charged to consumers is based upon estimates of the quantities consumed. There are at present in use upwards of two hundred water-meters of the Worthington patent, which is now substantially the same as when first patented some ten years ago. The establishment and application of means to ascertain correctly the quantities of water consumed is a subject of great importance to the city, as thereby the revenue from water-rents would be greatly increased, and any excessive use of Croton water would readily be detected and prevented. Under the direction of my predecessor in office some forty different inventions and patents in water-meters were examined and tested. The following is a copy of the report of the Chief Engineer of the Croton Aqueduct upon the subject :
To Hon. William M. Tweed, Commissioner of Public Works : Sir — I have, under your instructions, erected suitable fixtures for testing water-meters, and examined and tried forty-eight (48).
In the examination, the qualities sought for were accuracy of measurement, strength, and durability, with simplicity, cheapness of construction, and which afford but little impediment to the flow of water.
A great amount of mechanical capacity and skill has been shown in the construction of the meters presented for trial, many of them being beautiful specimens of works of art, and fulfilling most of the requirements.
The meter presented for trial by Mr. J. F. De Navarro, called the vibrating single-piston meter, is a very compact machine, simple in its construction and easily repaired or adjusted. It takes but a small force to run it, measures the water with great accuracy, and, in my opinion, answers the requirements more nearly than any other meter presented for trial.
Respectfully yours, EDW. H. TRACY, Chief Engineer Croton Aqueduct.
On the 23d of August, 1871, the Department entered into contract with J.F. De Navarro for 10,000 water-meters, at $70 each. Of this number 4,050 have been delivered, one estimate on account of the contract being in the Comptroller's office awaiting payment. On another estimate, now in this office, the approval of this Department has been withheld, in order that the legality of said contract could be ascertained and determined.
People of the State of New York ex rel. Jose F. Navarro, Appellant,
against George M. Van Nort, Commissioner of Public Works of the City
of New York, Respondent, Papers on Appeal from Order, New
York Supreme Court, City and County of New York.
annual report of the department of public works of the
city of New York : for the year ending April 10, 1873.
Pages 20-21: As stated in the last annual report, this Department refused to approve the bills for, or receive meters furnished by J. F. Navarro under a contract made previous to my administration, whereupon Mr. Navarro commenced legal proceedings to compel the Department to draw its requisition upon the Comptroller for payment of $285,000, with interest, for 4,050 meters delivered under that contract; the decision of the Supreme Court in Chambers was in favor of the Department, but in January last, upon an appeal by Mr. Navarro, the Supreme Court in General Term reversed this decision, and issued a writ of peremptory mandamus, commanding me, as Commissioner of Public Works, to draw a requisition upon the Comptroller for the full amount claimed, with interest. Upon the opinion and advice of the Counsel to the Corporation, no further resistance could be made by this Department, but the Finance Department is now contesting the validity of the claim, in a suit brought by Mr. Navarro against the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty.
York World, May 30, 1873, Page 4.
The bill incorporating "The Salt-water Supply Company of the City of New York" is now depending on the Legislature.
1873 "Supplying New York with Water from Poughkeepsie," The Evening Gazette (Port Jervis, New York), July 31, 1873, Page 2.
Institute Fair," The Manufacturer and Builder 7(11):248
Thomas Hanson, of Brooklyn, exhibits a noiseless water-pressure pumping-engine, which uses the force of the water drawn in the lower portion of the house to force water into a tank to supply the upper part. This avoids wasting water for the purpose of driving the pump, as is often the case with hydraulic motors.
1876 "Utilization of Salt Water," The New York Times, March 4, 1876, Page 8.
1876 "Utilizing Salt Water," New York Daily Herald, March 4, 1876, Page 8.
1876 "No Salt Water," New York Herald, April 8, 1876, Page 11.
Worthington Steam Pumping Engine: History of Its Invention and
Development, by Henry R. Worthington
Pages 60-61: AFFIDAVIT OF JOHN P. TREADWELL.
John P. Treadwell, of lawful age, being duly sworn, says:
I reside in New Milford, Connecticut. I was a proprietor of the St. Nicholas Hotel, New York, from 1858 to 1868.
When I opened that house, in 1858, I supposed that our own arrangements for supplying the hotel with water were most complete. But as we had to supply the building above the second story by Steam Pumps, I soon found that while we could elevate the water, we were creating a great disturbance with our guests by using the Pumps in the night, as we were
obliged to, in order to furnish a sufficient supply. There was a continual "thump," which extended along the whole line of the building, on the south side, for six hundred feet in length.
In order to remedy this evil, I tried other Pumps then in use, but had no better success, until finally I had to order the Pumps shut off at nine o'clock at night, and take the risk of a supply until the morning. But that did not
answer, as the supply would give out before we could start the Pumps in the morning. I finally called on Mr. Worthington, and he made for me one of his Pumping Engines, which was set up in the hotel in the fall of 1857, and relieved me of all my troubles. When it was put in position, it was set right to work and run all night, and I never heard a word thereafter of complaint from the guests of the house. You could stand alongside of this Pump when in operation, and, if not looking at it, you would not know it was working. It is noiseless.
Knowing, as I do by experience, its merits for hotel use, I would sooner pay the price of it twice over than not to have it, as compared with any other Pump I know of.
I have no interest in the subject of this application. JNO. P: TREADWELL.
AFFIDAVIT OF A. B. DARLING.
A. B. Darling, of lawful age. being duly sworn, says:
I reside in New York, and am a proprietor and manager of the Fifth Avenue Hotel. In this capacity I require to use Steam Pumping Engines of various sizes, for supplying the upper rooms of the hotel with water and for extinguishing fires. For these purposes I have never seen a Pumping Engine that I consider equal to the Worthington. It is sure in its operation and practically noiseless. Many other Pumps that work very well otherwise, are so noisy as to keep guests awake in that part of the house through which the pipes run. I am not a mechanic, and do not know to what these valuable effects are owing; but I can say that the action of this Engine is superior to that of the numerous other Pumps I have been acquainted with, so much so as to more than justify the higher price which it commands.
I have no interest in the subject of this application for extension. A. B. DARLING.
1876 "A Memoir of American Engineering," A paper read by John B. Jervis, C.E., Honorary Member of the Society, Read October 18th, 1876, from Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 6:39-67 (1878)
1877 "Croton Water," from Scribner's Monthly, 14(2):161-176 (June, 1877)
of the Special Committee of the Board of Aldermen Appointed to
Investigate the "ring" Frauds, Together with the Testimony Elicited
During the Investigation: Board of Aldermen, January 4, 1878
Pages 180-183: Tweed's testimony on the Navarro water meter
to Fight Flames," by William J. McAlpine, New York Daily Herald,
February 1, 1879, Page 2.
A ponderous scheme for the protection of property. Fire Engines Displaced. The Water to Come from a Tank 350 Feet above the ground.
Proposed a water storage tank 100 feet in diameter and 350 feet high, more than twice the height of the Western Union building.
1879 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1879
1879 The inadequate water supply in New York, and its remedies : the Holly system of direct pressure on all mains and pipes ; water to be supplied at all times at the top of each building on Manhattan Island by the Holly system ; triple method as a whole or separately, by J.L. Douglass. May 15, 1879
of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York, for the
quarter ending June 30, 1879, with special report on the subject of
Pages 14-15: There is, however, another defect in the aqueduct itself. This perhaps cannot be called a defect in the original design when it is considered that it was not contemplated that the water line of the aqueduct would rise above the springing of the arch, so that at most the depth of water would not exceed five feet. It was computed that this volume would furnish sixty millions of gallons daily, and provision was probably not made for delivering a greater quantity. The upper part of the aqueduct, its arch, spandrels and sustaining walls, were therefore not constructed with a view to the pressure of water raised nearly to the roof. It is now eight or nine years since it was found necessary to carry water in the aqueduct far above the springing line. It is evident this must have been the case to meet the demand of ninety to one hundred millions of gallons daily. This increased pressure, added to the settlement of the lower walls, caused cracks in the arch, from which water leaked, and, finding its way through the dry walls to the ground, caused a still greater settlement of the embankment. Steps should have been immediately taken at that time (if not earlier) to strengthen and repair the upper portion of the aqueduct, in the manner pursued for the past three years. Had this been done we would have been saved from great anxiety, and from what might have resulted in a serious calamity.
Tribune, August 12, 1879, Page 4
The Commissioners of Public Works has found it necessary, in view of the growing demand upon the water supply, to require all persons using water for business purposes to use a metre by which the amount they must pay the city can be gauged. This, it is believed, will be useful, not so much in gaining a revenue for the city as in checking waste. It is noted as one incident in the increased drain on the supply, that the elevated roads use half a million gallons of water a day.
Use of Water Meters," New-York Tribune, August 12, 1879,
A new order in reference to the Worthington metre - The Navarro suit.
Between 500 and 600 now being sued.
1879 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending December 31, 1879
1880 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1880
1880 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1880
1880 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1880
1880 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending December 31, 1880
1880 Remonstrance Against the Removal of the Murray Hill Reservoir: Including a Petition for the Bill Introduced Into the Assembly by Mr. Mitchell to Authorize a Commission to Consider the Whole Question of Water Supply and Distribution
1881 New York City, Engineering News, 8:91 (March 5, 1881)
1881 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1881
York Water Supply, April 11, 1881. Report to Hubert O.
Thompson, Commissioner of Public Works, by Isaac Newton, Chief Engineer,
opinion of E.S. Chesbrough, Consulting Engineer.
Page 5: The utmost capacity of the aqueduct has been variously stated, in different reports, at 90 million to 115 million gallons daily. At one time when the flow was estimated was forced to upwards of 103 million, the consequences were disastrous, for this rate caused serious damage to the aqueduct, and it was therefore reduced.
Page 6: The distinguished constructor of the aqueduct did not anticipate the great increase in the demand for water brought about by the requirements of modern life, the enormous growth of manufactures in the city, the use already probably between seven and eight thousand steam boilers within the cit limits, the steam railways in operation already consuming over one million of gallons daily, nor the provision in every house of water fittings, – often including pumps, – from the basement to upper floors.
1881 Remonstrance of the Union League Club Against the Bill for the Construction by the Commissioner of Public Works of a New Aqueduct from the Croton Valley to the City: With Reasons in Favor of the Appointment by the Governor and Senate of Five Commissioners to Consider the Subject and Report at the Next Session, and with Authority, If Need Be, to Construct Such Aqueduct in Place of the Commissioner of Public Works, April 14, 1881.
1881 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1881
1881 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1881
Croton Water is Wasted.” Engineering News 8:450-451
(November 5, 1881)
How Croton Water is Wasted. “The inspectors of the Department of Public Works are busy searching for houses where water is wasted. Their method is to have a man enter a sewer in the night-time through a man-hole and apply a gauge to the water flowing into the sewers from houses. In cases where the flow is great an inspector is sent to the house the next day to examine the plumbing. When a serious leak is found the water is cut off summarily. In this way a number of houses have been deprived of water within the last few days. The police have been notified to be especially vigilant to prevent the waste or water, and the result of the order has been that several houses have been reported. In one case yesterday the water was cut off from a row of three houses on a police report. The water will not be let on again until the owners or occupants take measures to prevent waste. The officials of the Department of Public Works find the most fault with apartment houses. One of them visited by inspectors had a tank on the top floor containing 3,300 gallons of water. This was filled and emptied twice a day, making the water supply 6,600 gallons a day. Ten families live in the house, so that 660 gallons are used by each family, which is considered an excessive amount. This does not include hot water, which is supplied from boilers in the basement. The officials have no power to limit the supply unless a waste of water can be shown. Some trouble is experienced by the inspectors in gaining admittance to houses in the daytime, as servants object to letting them in while their employers are out.”
1881 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending December 31, 1881
1882 Report of John B. Jervis, constructor of the Croton aqueduct. On the plans proposed by Isaac Newton, chief engineer of Croton aqueduct. January 11, 1882
1882 New York Water Supply, January 20, 1882. Report of Isaac Newton, Chief Engineer of Croton Aqueduct. | Also here |
1882 Report of H.O. Thompson ...: On Proposed New Aqueduct and Storage Reservoir for Additional Supply from Croton River, with Detailed Report of Isaac Newton ... and Opinions of Consulting Engineers, February, 1882
1882 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1882
1882 Report and Resolutions on the Subject of City Water Supply and Distribution: Showing the Danger of the Proposed Dam at Quaker Bridge, and Renewing the Petition to Appoint Commissioners to Decide Upon Plans and Construct Works. April, 1882 Union League Club (New York, N.Y.)
1882 A report of a plan for supplementing the Croton water supply to the City of New York from the Ramapo District, by William J. McAlpine. April 30, 1882.
1882 "New York Water Rates," Engineering News 9:182 (June 3, 1882)
1882 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1882
1882 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1882
1882 New York City from "The Water-Supply of Certain Cities and Towns of the United States," by Walter G. Elliot, C. E., Ph. D.
1882 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending December 31, 1882
1883 "Water Supply of New York City," The Medical Record 23(3):70 (January 20, 1883)
1883 New York Water Supply, February 21, 1883. Report on Storage Reservoirs in the Croton, by Isaac Newton, Chief Engineer Croton Aqueduct. Opinion of Consulting Engineers.
1883 Report of the Commissioner of Public Works to the Aqueduct Commissioners: Supplementary to His Report of August 8, 1883, Upon Plans for an Additional Supply of Water to the City of New York; and Relating to the Building of the Proposed Muscoot Dam, September 11, 1883.
1883 "The Great Water-Meter Job," Engineering News, 10:532 (November 3, 1883)
1883 John Biard, Plaintiff, Respondent, vs. The Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New York, Defendants, Appellants, Case on Appeal, Record and Briefs, New York Supreme Court.| another copy or version |
1883 John Biard, Plaintiff, Respondent, vs. The Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New York, October 26, 1883, Supreme Court of New York, First Department
1884 Report of the Commissioner of Public Works to the Aqueduct Commissioners: Supplementary to His Report of August 8, 1883, Upon Plans for an Additional Supply of Water to the City of New York; and Relating to the Plans, Specifications, and Estimates for the Construction of the Proposed Quaker Bridge Dam, January 30, 1884.
1884 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1884
1884 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1884
1884 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1884
1884 John Biard, Plaintiff, Respondent, vs. The Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New York, Defendants, Appallents, 96 N.Y. 567, October 7, 1884, New York Court of Appeals.
1884 "The Navarro Meter," Engineering News, 12:176 (October 11, 1884)
of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the
Quarter ending December 31, 1884
Pages 14-15: By a decision or judgment of the Court of Appeals, the city has become the owner of 10,000 "Navarro" water-meters, ordered by the Department under the administration of Commissioner William M. Tweed, but rejected by his successors on the ground that the price agreed to be paid for them was exorbitant; 4,050 of them have been tested and regulated to measure the water passing through them accurately, but all these meters have been stored for so long a time (about fourteen years) that they will require certain necessary repairs before they can be used. It is suggested by the Chief Engineer of the Croton Aqueduct that these meters be placed on houses used exclusively as dwellings, where under the law, meters cannot be placed at the expense of the owners, and where waste of water is known or believed to exist; and he thinks that the cost of the meters, putting them.in order and setting them would be returned to the city in one year by increased revenue for water measured by them.
1885 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1885
1885 Engineering Drawings and Data: The New Croton Aqueduct by Engineering News Publishing Company
1886 Specifications to Contractors for Building ... the New Croton Aqueduct, Volume 2
1886 Water shed of the Croton River
1887 Establishing a scale of water rents and rules governing the use of water, for New York City.
1887 Report to the Aqueduct Commissioners by the President January 1, 1887.
Estimates for Budget for the year 1888
Page 80: 3d. $17,500 for repairing 1,000 Navarro water-meters and placing them at the expense of the City in buildings known as “flats," and other houses, which, under the existing law, are not subject to the compulsory use of meters at the expense of the owners, but in which there are large opportunities for excessive consumption and waste of water, and where unnecessary waste of water is known or believed to exist. This is necessary as one of the most efficient measures to suppress excessive use and waste of water, and it is the best use which the City can make of the 10,000 Navarro water-meters for which it has been compelled to pay by judgment of the courts.
1888 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1888
City Record: Official Journal, Volume 9, Part 2 (April 11,
Page 583: Waste of water and Future supply.
During the year 2,604 water meters were placed, and on the first of January 4,002 meters were in use.
The designers and constructors of the aqueduct and Croton water system did not contemplate the necessity or demand that water be delivered by its own pressure in the upper stories of tall buildings. As late as 1867 the Commissioners of the Croton Aqueduct, in their annual report to the Common Council, say on this subject: “We are satisfied that the great object in the construction of the Croton works was obtained when abundant water was brought to every door, and its convenient delivery assured. Its moderate consumption and comparatively limited distribution during the early years of the operation of the works drew lightly upon the capacity of the pipes, and, of course, the temporary convenience of higher head was naturally felt ; this has, unfortunately, led to unreasonable expectations on the part of the first consumers, and now that the city has greatly increased in area and population, with consequent increased demands upon the water service, they are inclined to consider that an unjust deprivation, which, after all, but moderates an excessive privilege.”
1888 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1888
1888 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1888
1888 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter and year ending December 31, 1888
1888 Outline of Plans (with Illustrations) for Furnishing an Abundant Supply of Water to the City of New York: From a Source Independent of the Croton Watershed Delivered Into the Lower Part of the City Under Pressure Sufficient for Domestic, Sanitary, Commercial and Manufacturing Purposes, and for the Extinguishment of Fires, with Legal and Engineering and Other Papers, by John R. Bartlett
1888 Map of the Passaic and Croton water-sheds, water courses, storage reservoirs and sources of supply for the cities, towns, & villages within a radius of 50 miles from the City of New York. Map to accompany John Bartlett's proposal (above). Also shows old and new Croton aqueducts.
1888 "New York City," from Manual of American Water Works, Volume 1.
1889 "The New Croton Aqueduct," illustrated; by Charles Barnard, from The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine 39(2):205-224 (December, 1889)
1889 "The New Aqueduct - The Sodom Dam," illustrated, from Harper's Weekly 33:994-999 (December 14, 1889)
1890 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1890
1890 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1890
1890 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1890
1890 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter and Year ending December 31, 1890
1890 "New York City," from Manual of American Water Works, Volume 2.
Iron Age 47(2):712 (April 9, 1891)
It is said that Navarro's 10,000 water meters purchased under the Tweed regime, and which cost the city over $1,000,000, will soon be advertised for sale from the corporation yard as old junk.
1891 "New York City," from Manual of American Water Works, Volume 3.
1892 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1892
1892 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1892
1892 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1892
1892 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter and Year ending December 31, 1892
1893 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1893
1893 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1893
1893 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1893
1893 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter and Year ending December 31, 1893
1893 Catalogue of the Illustrations of the Water-supply of the City of New York: Written for the Board of General Managers of the Exhibit of the State of New York at the World's Columbian Exposition by Edward Wegmann
1894 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1894.
1894 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1894.
1894 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1894.
1894 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter and Year ending December 31, 1894.
1895 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending March 31, 1895
1895 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending June 30, 1895
1895 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter ending September 30, 1895
1895 Report of the Department of Public Works of the City of New York for the Quarter and Year ending December 31, 1895
Well Prospects in the Atlantic Coastal Plain Region, by Helson
Horatio Darton. USGS Bulletin No. 138
Page 38: New York City. List of wells in New York City.
There are many deep wells on New York island which yield large volumes of water, but it appears that the greater part of the water, contains either mineral or surface contaminations which greatly diminish its usefulness. The deep wells are in the granite-gneiss, mica-schist, or limestone, which are near the surface north of Fortieth street, but southward are more or less deeply buried beneath sands and clays of Pleistocene age, There are also many wells 20 to 80 feet deep in the superficial beds. Nearly all the data I have for the New York City wells were obtained through the kindness of Mr. W. d'H. Washington, of New York, who has sunk many of these wells.
1896 The Water Supply of the City of New York, 1658-1895 by Edward Wegmann, extensive detail on the Croton System.
New York Times, December 20, 1897, Page 1.
The water was drawn from the Bryant Park Reservoir on Saturday night, so that it may be removed to make room for the City Library.
1897 "New York City," from Manual of American Water Works, Volume 4.
1898 First Annual Report of the Department of Water Supply of the City of New York
1899 "John B. Jervis," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 41:612 (June, 1899)
1899 Second Annual Report of the Department of Water Supply of the City of New York
1900 Report Upon New York's Water Supply: With Particular Reference to the Need of Procuring Additional Sources and Their Probable Cost, with Works Constructed Under Municipal Ownership, Made to Bird S. Coler, Comptroller, March 23, 1900, by John Ripley Freeman.
1900 "An ordinance establishing a scale of water rents for The City of New York," April 10, 1900, from General Ordinances of the City of New York Under the Greater New York Charter
1900 Inquiry Into the Conditions Relating to the Water-supply of the City of New York, by Commerce and Industry Association of New York, August, 1900
Annual Report of the Department of Water Supply of the City of New
Pages 102-103: Table showing yearly revenue from Croton water from October 5, 1842 to January 1, 1901
York Water Works," Fire and Water 29:197-203 (June 15, 1901)
The Croton Dam and Watershed. Jerome Park Reservoir. The Distribution System of Manhattan, with views of the principal works of interest.
1902 "Concerning the Water Supply of New York," by Benjamin S. Church, formerly Chief Engineer of the Croton Aqueduct, The New York Times, November 30, 1902, Page 11.
1902 Concerning the Water Supply of New York, by Benjamin S. Church. Reprint of 1902 New York Times article with added material. Missing pages 4 and 5 were replaced using text from the 1903 Water and Gas Review article below.
the Water Supply of New York," Water and Gas Review 13(7):43
Omitted Portions of Chief Engineer Church's Communication Presented. Additional Interesting Facts and Figures
1903 Report of the Commission on Additional Water Supply for the City of New York: Made to Robert Grier Monroe, Commissioner of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity ... November 30, 1903
Years Business Record For Family Reference, by José F. de
Pages 37-: Fourth Business Enterprise. Ingersoll Rock Drill Company.
This Company grew out of my machine factory in Second Avenue, where I manufactured the ten thousand water meters for the City of New York, under contract with the Department of Public Works under W. M. Tweed. They were built under the sanction and advice of Comptroller Andrew H. Green, who afterwards turned around and opposed its payment for personal selfish political reasons, keeping up a costly litigation for ten years, which cost the city about $700,000 additional for 7 per cent. interest, costs, and other incidental expenses. The Court of Appeals in their decision went so far out of the ordinary as to clear me of any impropriety in the matter, and my original bill of $700,000 (which swelled to over $1,400,000 when interest, costs and expenses were included) was paid me in full under the administration of Mayor W. R. Grace.
I made up my mind then never again to deal with any political corporations. With the experience acquired in manufacturing the water meters and the tools and utensils on hand, Sergent and Collingworth, my two late capable, honest foremen, and myself, formed a company for jobbing purposes in the machinery line. Then, with the profits in that business, we succeeded in picking up the whole of the capital stock of the Ingersoll Rock Drill Company, a broken-down concern. After perfecting their defective machines, we made an immense success.
1905 "300-mile Waterpipe to Supply New York," The Minneapolis Journal, March 13, 1905, Page 3.
1905 "Come West for Water," Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls, South Dakota, May 4, 1905, Page 2.
1905 "To Lakes for
Tribune, March 16, 1905, Page 3.
New Apgar Bill would allow Any City to Tap New-York Mains
1905 "New York Water Supply," The Journal of Gas Lighting, Water Supply & Sanitary Improvement 90:458 (May 16, 1905)
1905 "To Take Water from Lake Erie," Fire and Water Engineering 38:120 (August 26, 1905)
1905 Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment: October 9, 1905 by New York Board of Water Supply
1905 Report on Filtration of the Water Supply of the City of New York by Thomas Darlington, M.D., Commissioner of Health
1906 Report of Board of Water Supply to Hon. George B. McClellan, Mayor, Showing Work Done in Preliminary Proceedings for Securing an Additional Supply of Pure and Wholesome Water from the Catskill Mountain Region, April 9, 1906
1906 Waste of water in New York and its reduction by meters and inspection. A report by James H. Fuertes, C.E., to the Committee on Water-Supply of the Merchants' Association of New York; also A Digest of Laws Governing the Use of Water-Meters in New York, by Alfred L. Marilley; and A Summary of Present Conditions Relating to the Water-Supply of New York, by J. Hampden Dougherty (June, 1906)
1906 Annual report of the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity of the City of New York
1906 First Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York | Volumes 1-68 at Hathitrust |
1907 Report to the Aqueduct Commissioners
1907 City of New York Additional Water Supply Catskill Aqueduct Inauguration of Construction near Peekskill, N.Y. June 20, 1907 by Board of Water Supply
1907 Second Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1908 Third Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1909 "The World's Greatest Aqueduct," by Alfred Douglass Flinn, The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine 78(5):707-721 (September 1909) | also here |
1909 "High-Pressure Fire-Service Pumps of New York City," by Prof. R.C. Carpenter, from Journal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 31(7):839-864 (November, 1909) | Discussion 32(3):391-408 (March, 1910)
1909 "High Pressure Fire-Service Pumps of New York City," by Prof. R.C. Carpenter, from Power and the Engineer 31:760-761 (November 2, 1909)
1909 The distribution in New York of the Catskill water supply; special report by Lindon Bates, jr., consulting engineer, to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment, December 10th, 1909, by Lindon Bates, Jr.
1909 Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1910 "The Construction of the New Croton Dam," by Edward Wegmann and J.B. Goldsborough, The Journal of the American Society of Engineering Contractors 2(9):384-444 (November, 1910)
1910 Fifth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1911 Sixth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1912 Catskill Water Supply: Reports, Letters, Resolutions and Authorizations on the City Tunnel and the Delivery of Catskill Water to the Several Boroughs of the City
Water Supplies of Manhattan," Fire and Water Engineering
52:160 (September 4, 1912)
The drilling of so many artesian wells in the Borough of Manhattan. New York, has thrown considerable light on the underlying mica-schist and the long unbroken cores of stone that form a feature. The water lies beneath this quasi-granitic formation and these long bars of quartz that bold the cores together. The existence of these solid cores has been known nearly ever since drilling has been practised on Manhattan Island, but it is only of late that solid cores of 4½ inches in diameter and 14 feet 6 inches in length have been brought out of the depths by the use of the shot-bore drill (so-called because small steel shot is fed down to the bottom of a 6-inch bore through the drill itself, the shot being poured into the hollow of the tube). Each core tube is 15 feet long, and as soon as the drill has gone down 30 feet (two core tube lengths), a 10-foot length of hollow rod is adjusted until the drill arm is made of 68 separate bars. When the core tube is filled with rock it is raised and the numerous sections are removed. As a rule, these tube cores are broken up into small pieces, but in one tube, that in the areaway between the Maritime, Chesebrough and Battery Park buildings at Pearl and State streets, where the drill has reached a depth of 685 feet without as vet finding water. In some cases, however, as in the one just referred to, tube cores 10 or 12 feet long are brought up. The long bores are removed by a 40-foot skeleton tower.
When water is struck, it does not shoot up suddenly or ascend to any great height, but comes up the side of the drill to. perhaps, within 30 feet of the surface, and is raised to the top by the use of a deep-well pumn, after which it is analyzed by the board of health, which decides whether it is fit for drinking, manufacturing or only washing and sprinkling purposes.
These wells are in request for breweries, bakeries and candy factories, as well as for laundries and factories They give a large and continuous flow, In Hudson street, two 8-inch wells furnish 18 gallons a minute: two wells in Prince street, give a supply of 200 gallons a minute: one in Canal street, near Hudson, supplies 100,000 gallons a day; two 8-inch wells in Canal street, near Hudson, give 100,000 gallons a day; four wells in Vandam street, about 40 feet deen, give water for condensing purposes. The University Club has a well 700 feet deep, which furnishes the water for the ice machines; at Scribners’ a 400-foot well provides 81 gallons a minute; a 750-foot well in a Vesey street office building, furnishes 30,000 gallons in 12 hours.
1912 Seventh Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1913 The Catskill water supply of New York City: history, location, sub-surface investigations and construction by Lazarus White
1913 Eighth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
Croton water supply : its quality and purification," by George W.
Fuller, from Journal of the American Water Works Association
1(1):135-187 (March, 1914) | also here
Page 137: The water is led to the city through two masonry aqueducts; the first, the old Croton aqueduct, a cut and cover brick horseshoe section, with an area of 53.34 square feet; the second, the new Croton aqueduct, a grade tunnel of horseshoe section, with an area of 155.6 square feet.
1914 Report on the Desirability of Converting the Croton Water System from a Gravity to a Pumped Supply to the Committee on Fire Prevention and Insurance of the Merchants' Association of New York, by James Hillhouse Fuertes
1914 Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1915 "Manhattan Requires Increased Water Pressure," Greater New York: Bulletin of the Merchants' Association of New York 4(2):6-8 (January 11, 1915)
1915 Ramapo Water Company, Appt., v. City of New York and Charles Strauss, Charles N. Chadwick, and John F. Galvin, Individually and as Members of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York, 236 U.S. 579, March 8, 1915, United States Supreme Court
1915 Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
of the New-York Public Library
Page 79: The Croton Reservoir [Note these tablets don't appear to exist anymore.]
1916 Catskill water supply: A general description by New York Board of Water Supply
1916 Eleventh Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1917 The Regulation of Private Water Companies in New York City, by Delos Franklin Wilcox, Reprinted from the Journal of the New England Water Works Association 31(4):550-574 (December, 1917)
1917 "Water Works History" from Twenty Second Annual Report of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society
1917 Exhibition illustrating the history of the water supply of the city of New York from 1639 to 1917, by Victor Hugo Paltsits
1917 A Brief Sketch of the Municipal Water Supply System of the City of New York by New York Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity
1917 Catskill aqueduct celebration publications. A collection of pamphlets published in connection with the celebration of the completion of the Catskill aqueduct, being chiefly catalogues of exhibitions held by art, scientific and historical museums and institutions in New York City in cooperation with the Mayor's Catskill aqueduct celebration committee in 1917, by George Frederick Kunz
1917 The Catskill Aqueduct and Earlier Water Supplies of the City of New York: With Elementary Chapters on the Source and Uses of Water and the Building of Aqueducts, and an Outline for an Allegorical Pageant by New York Mayor's Catskill Aqueduct Celebration Committee and Edward Hageman Hall
1917 "Catskill Aqueduct Celebration," from Twenty Second Annual Report of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, May 3, 1917
1917 "Water Works History" from Twenty Second Annual Report of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, May 3, 1917.
1917 Twelfth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1918 Thirteenth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1919 Fourteenth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1920 Fifteenth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1921 Sixteenth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
G. Armstrong, Engineer," The New York Times, September 12,
1922, Page 21.
Charles G. Armstrong, an engineer was found dead yesterday in his home in Jersey City.
1922 Seventeenth Annual Report of the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York
1928 Catskill water supply. A general description, by Board of Water Supply of the City of New York. December, 1928.
1931 New Jersey v. New York, 283 U.S. 805, May 25, 1931, United States Supreme Court
1932 "World's Longest Water Tunnel" from Popular Science, Volume 121, Number 6, Page 35 (December 1932) City water tunnel number 2
1937 Giant Tube to Supply Water for Ten Milllions" from Popular Science, Volume 68, Number 2, Page 214-215 (August 1937)
1937 The Water supply of the city of New York.
C. Whitney, Modern Warwick, by Mark David Hirsch
Page 127: Navarro water meter case
Gets Water Station," Daily News (New York, New York),
December 16, 1949, Page 60.
A modern pumping station, built at 179th St. and Amsterdam Avenue. at a cost of $863,000 to provide 50,000,000 gallons of water daily to 250,000 residents, was opened yesterday by the Department of Water Supply.
The station is operated by electricity and replaces a steam station situated nearby on the banks of the Harlem River. The old station will be razed.
1952 Water supply of the City of New York.by New York Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity.
1954 Amended Decree, June 7, 1954, Supreme Court of the United States
1956 Water for the Cities: A History of the Urban Water Supply Problem in the United States by Nelson Blake, includes several chapters on New York City.
1962 "New York City," from Public Water Supplies of the 100 Largest Cities in the United States, 1962, US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1812, by Charles Norman Durfor and Edith Becker
1971 The reminiscences of John B. Jervis, engineer of the Old Croton. Edited, with introduction, by Neal Fitzsimons. Foreword by Robert Vogel.
1977 "Manhattan Life Line: Engineering the Old Croton Aqueduct, 1833-1842," by Larry Dean Lankton. PhD Dissertation in American Studies, University of Pennsylvania. This was printed in a slightly revised format by the Historic American Engineering Report in 1979 (see below).
1977 "The "practicable" engineer: John B. Jervis and the old Croton Aqueduct," by Larry D. Lankton, Essays in Public Works History 5:1-30 (1977)
1978 "The Old Croton Aqueduct," by George H. Rappole, IA. The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 4(1):15-25 (1978)
1978 "Valley Crossings on the Old Croton Aqueduct," by Larry D. Lankton IA. The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 4(1):27-42 (1978)
1979 "Old Croton Aqueduct," by Larry D. Lankton, Historic American Engineering Report (HAER NY-120), included in Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY at Library of Congress. Slightly revised version of his 1977 dissertation (see above). The title is often given as "Manhattan Life Line," which was his 1977 dissertation, but that phrase doesn't appear in the 1979 version.
1991 "Croton Aqueduct," National Register of Historic Places.
1992 The Old Croton Aqueduct: Rural Resources Meet Urban Needs, by Jeffrey Kroessler
1993 Water for New York City, Edward Hageman Hall, revision of The Catskill Aqueduct and Earlier Water Supplies of the City of New York: With Elementary Chapters on the Source and Uses of Water and the Building of Aqueducts, and an Outline for an Allegorical Pageant by Edward Hageman Hall (1917)
1996 "The hydraulics revolution: Science and technical design of urban water supply in the enlightenment," by Edward Howard Winant, PhD dissertation in History, West Virginia University. Includes chapters on the history of water works in New York City.
2000 Water for Gotham by Gerard T. Koeppel
2002 Liquid Assets: A History of New York City's Water System, by Diane Galusha
: the architecture and engineering of the New York City water supply,
by Kevin Bone, Gina Pollara, Albert F. Appleton. This is an
excellent book with many photographs and engineering drawings.
Pages 26-51: "The Rise to Croton," by Gerard Koppel
2011 The Croton Waterworks: A Guide to the Preservation and Interpretation of Historic Infrastructure, Historic Preservation Studio II, Spring 2011
2011 The Croton Waterworks
2012 The Memoirs of Stephen Allen: (1767-1852) Sometime Mayor of New York City, Chairman of the (Croton) Water Commissiones, Etc. Etc, edited by John C. Travis. | also here |
2013 History of NYC Water System by Catskill Watershed Corporation
2013 The Contentious History of Supplying Water to Manhattan by Lauren Robinson, Museum of the City of New York
2013 Empire of Water: An Environmental and Political History of the New York City Water Supply by David Soll
2014 The Croton and Catskill Systems: Meeting the Demand for Water in New York City by Lauren Robinson, Museum of the City of New York
2015 Delaware Aqueduct Rondout-West Branch Bypass Tunnel Project
2015 Gilboa Dam Reconstruction Project
2015 New York City Tunnel No. 3
2016 Rare early stereoviews of High Bridge Aqueduct
Old Croton Aqueduct from Wikipedia
New Croton Aqueduct from Wikipedia
Catskill Aqueduct from Wikipedia
Croton Aqueducts from Croton Histories & Mysteries
Delaware Aqueduct from Wikipedia
Evolution of New York City's Water Supply
Croton Aqueduct, includes links to additional HAER reports
of Aldermen Documents
of the Board of Councilmen of the City of New York.
and Index to the Papers of John Bloomfield Jervis, Jervis Public
Library, Rome, New York
Water Maps from the New York Public Library
Water Supply System, American Society of Civil Engineers
towers: NYC's misunderstood icons
NYC water towers: History, use, and infrastructure
Water Towers in New York
NYC’s wooden water tanks plagued by ‘widespread neglect’: report
Up on the Roof: NYC's Water Tanks Are Here to Stay
© 2018 Morris A. Pierce