Documentary History of American Water-works

Introduction Historical Background Chronology Geography Biography Technology Ownership and Financing General Bibliography

Technology Lead Pipe

Lead Pipe in American Waterworks

Lead pipes were used in Roman, Medieval and English water works.  In America they were first used in a public water system in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania around 1754.  They were almost universally used as service pipes into individual buildings.

Many smaller systems were built entirely of lead pipes, including Bethlehem (1786), Springfield, Massachusetts (1818), and Stockbridge, Massachusetts (1830).   

Lead pipes were originally made by rolling a sheet of lead into a pipe and soldering the joint.  Starting in 1820 several methods were used to make continuous lead pipe by forcing lead through a die to make pipes up to five inches in inside diameter. 

The Romans knew that lead pipes could result in lead poisoning, and many cases of this were known in the 1800s, but these pipes were used through late in the 20th Century and continue to cause problems.

In 1836, the Rev Dr. Alvan Lamson, a distinguished local cleric in Dedham, Massachusetts, was poisoning by water from the newly installed lead aqueduct..

The engineer Albert Stein, owner of the Mobile Water Works, was tried and convicted in 1860 of providing "poisoned water" due to the use of lead pipes, but the conviction was overturned by the Supreme Court of Alabama in 1861, finding that he had no intent to poison anyone.

Ezra Cornell obtained a patent for an automatic lead pipe trenching machine to lay lead pipe for telegraph wires.

In 1887 a group of financiers organized the National Lead Trust for the purpose of "securing intelligent cooperation n the business of smelting, refining, corroding, manufacturing, vending, and dealing in lead and all its products."  This organization encountered significant opposition, and was reorganized in 1893 as the National Lead Company.

ca 20 BCE "Of Conducting Water,: De architectura (The Ten Books of Architecture), by Vitruvius, translated by Joseph Gwilt, Translation by Morris Hicky Morgan

1772 "Further Observations on the Poison of Lead" by George Baker, M.D., Paper XX, Read at the College, December 11, 1771, Medical Transactions of the Royal College of Physicians 2:419-470 (1772)

1786 Benjamin Franklin Letter on Lead Poisoning, Phila July 31, 1786 (To Benjamin Vaughan)

1788 New-Haven Gazette, April 17, 1788, Page 1.
Bethlehem, 16th August, 1787.
The inhabitants of this town are supplied with water, by having it run through a cistern, in their kitchen, or by drawing it, by turning a cock.  A spring supplies this water, which by a pump, worked by a water machine, is forced up more than ninety feet, into the fountain head, from whence it is conveyed by leaden pipes to the different houses.

1794 An Account of a New and Successful Method of Treating Those Affections which Arise from the Poison of Lead: To which are Added General Observations on the Internal Use of Lead as a Medicine, by Henry  Clutterbuck

1799 Merchantile Advertiser, November 13, 1799, Page 3.
The following regulations have been adopted for the distribution of water among the inhabitants of the city.
2d. The lateral or small pipe must be procured and laid at the expence of the applicant, who may employ what workman he pleased for the purpose.  The company recommend the use of leaden pipes.

1803 Researches into the Properties of Spring Water, with medical cautions (illustrated by cases) against the use of Lead in the construction of pumps, water-pipes, cisterns, &c. by William Lambe, M.D. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Also here |

1803 Daily Advertiser (New York, New York), June 8, 1803, Page 2.
Extracts from a late Dublin paper.   A work has lately made its appearance in London, written by Doctor Lambe, a celebrated Physician, entitled "Researches into the Properties of Spring Water; with Medical Cautions against the Use of Lead in Water-pipes, Pumps, Cisterns,&c."  Many new positions are advanced in this work, which has excited amongst the faculty no inconsiderable share of attention.

1803 Daily Advertiser (New York, New York), June 10, 1803, Page 2.
In looking over the Daily Advertiser of Tuesday I read the following article: "a work has lately made its appearance in London, written by Doctor Lambe, a celebrated Physician, entitled "Researches into the Properties of Spring Water; with Medical Cautions against the Use of Lead in Water-pipes, Pumps, Cisterns,&c."  It is added, "many new positions are advanced in this work, which has excited amongst the faculty no inconsiderable share of attention."
That the use of leaden vessels, whether in the dairy or kitchen, is pernicious to life, is an opinion which has been long admitted as correct.  For years past the best and wisest friends of the welfare and happiness of society have told and demonstrated the dangerous and pernicious effects of lead, or pewter, or copper, when used to contain liquids, which were afterwards consumed as food or drink.
Previously to establishing the water works of the Manhattan Company, every possible care was taken by every person who regarded the preservation of their health, to avoid the use of any vessel whose composition would communicate any impurities to the water br't to their houses by the watermen in casks; red ware was used only persons who probably were ignorant of the nature of clay of that kind; and the kind of vessels used by the most intelligent people was either stone pots or wooden kegs.  This water in hot weather, by the evening or on Sundays, became, from the stagnant situation, unpleasant and unhealthy; and the prospect of being supplied with fresh wholesome water probably contributed to fill the subscriptions to the shares of the Company more than any other consideration.  At least, I know many who subscribed for shares, rested their calculations on the knowledge that had of the universal desire the citizens had to support and establishment that would furnish them with fresh and wholesome water; and when the Company first offered a supply of water, some of the most enlightened citizens objected to received it by means of leaden pipes, and had conducted to their kitchens by wooden ones, to this there was no objection made by the Company at first, but some some time a total stop was put to this privilege, and it was then told to every one who applied at the office, that they could only have it in their houses by leaden pipes.  As there was no alternative, this regulation was submitted to, but considered by many as arbitrary; and now at this moment almost the whole of the citizens who take the water, receive it by leaden pipes; this very mineral that the civilized world has been so often cautioned against using it in any way connected with culinary purposes.  Why is this regulation compulsory on the inhabitants of this city?  Why not suffer them to pursue their judgment and inclination, to choose whether they will receive it by wooden or leaden pipes?  If, as it has been said by the Company's agent, the wooden wants repairing more frequently than the leaden pipes; if I say this is a fact, then let the repairs be at the expence of the owner or inhabitant of the house taking the water; this might be fair enough, but to say, "here, take and drink and cook with water from our leaden-pipes or not at all," is a stretch of power that no body of men should be entitled to.  Our neighbours, the wise and experienced inhabitants of Albany, have shewn more judgment on this subject.  All their pipes are made of wood, and as small a quantity of minerals as possible used in any of the machinery connected with the works.  I, as well as the great body of citizens, have from the commencement, from the most powerful of all motives, selfish, been friendly to the institution, and had the water conducted in a house in which I formerly lived, with a leaden pipe; from which I suffered so many inconvenience, that on my removal at May, in a house that is not supplied with water, I have resolved not to receive it, unless I can obtain it by means of a wooden pipe; being convinced that the water that remains in the leaden pipe is prejudicial to my health. -- When this important subject is better considered by the Directors of the Company, they then may see proper to give me water, as I choose -- until then I will prefer receiving it from the watermen.  A Native of the city of New York.

1803 New-England Palladium (Boston), June 17, 1803, Page 4.
Dr. Lambe, of London, has lately published "Medical cautions against the use of water in lead pipes, pumps, cisterns," &c.  The New-York Aqueduct Corporation supply the Citizens with water through leaden pipes, and Dr. L's. publication has, or course, attracted some attention in that city.

1803 David Lownes, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Patent #474X for pipes, leaden and others, secured from frost, July 21, 1803.

1806 "Researches into the Properties of Spring Water, with medical cautions (illustrated by cases) against the use of Lead in the construction of pumps, water-pipes, cisterns, &c.," by William Lambe, M.D., The Monthly Review 50:161-163 (June, 1806)

1807 Public Advertiser (New York, New York), May 11, 1807, Page 3.
N.B.Orders for new pipe, or repairs, to be left at the Water Office, 18, Upper Chamber-Street, or at the Manhattan Bank.  The present charges for laying in lead pipe is 6s, and for wood do. 3s. per foot including the taking up and replacing the pavement, flagging, &c.  The cost of conveying the water to houses in wood pipe (which from experience is found to be least liable to injury) is generally not more than 10 dollars.  And the annual expence in repairs very trifling, consisting chiefly in repairing the cocks, which from the great pressure of the water is required to be done in 12, or at least 18 months.

1808 Williard Badger, Boston, Massachusetts, Patent #968X, mode of casting pipes or tubes, December 26, 1808.  No additional information on this patent has been found, including the pipe material.   

1809 "Sur la ténacité des métaux ductiles, les changemens de densité du plomb par les procédés d'écrouissement, et l'action que l'eau distillée exerce sue ce métal," by M. Guyton-Morveau, Annales de Chimie, 71:189-199 (July 31, 1809)

1813 Reports of the Society for Bettering the Condition and Increasing the Comforts of the Poor 6:208-210
Medical cautions recommended by the physicians and surgeons of the Bath Hospital, to those who have received benefit by the use of the Bath waters: in cases where the poison of lead is concerned, as Plumbers, Glaziers, Painters, and other Artificers, who work in Trades which explose them to similar Hazards, from the same Casue; to be observed by them at their return to the exercise of their former Occupation.  April 18, 1813

1814 Alpheus Todd, Orford, New Hampshire, Patent #2,106X for making lead pipes, April 18, 1814.  Note patent office publications have him from Oxford, instead of Orford.

1818 Cyrus Eastman, Hillsborough, New Hampshire, Patent #2,942X for machine for rolling metallic tubes, April 16, 1818.

1818 The Evening Post (New York, New York) June 22, 1818, Page 1.
All orders received and attended to for laying and repairing the Manhattan lead pipes, by Samuel Starkey, No. 13 Chamber-street.

1819 "Lead Pipes," The Cyclopædia: Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature 38:6-7

1820 To Thomas Burr, of Shrewsbury, for certain Improvements in Machinery for Manufacturing Lead and other Metal into Pipe and Sheets, April 11, 1820.  Newton's London Journal of Arts and Sciences, 1(6):411-413 (1820)

1820 Specifications of the Patent granted to Thomass Burr, of Shrewsbury, in the County of Salop, Plumber; for certain Improvements in Machinery for Manufacturing Lead and other Metal into Pipe and Sheets, April 11, 1820.  The Repertory of Arts, Manufactures, and Agriculture 41:267-270 (October, 1822)

1820 "Lead Pipe," Hartford Courant, August 15, 1820, Page 3. Joseph Fairbank and Earl Jepherson, Enfield, Connecticut

1821 Thomas B. Robbins, Stockbridge, Massachusetts, Patent # 3,309X for making aqueduct pipes,  March 19, 1821.  Robbins died on July 7, 1826, age 53.  No other information on this patent has been found, including the pipe material.

1821 "Lead Aqueducts," Hartford Courant, June 26, 1821, Page 4.  Richard Ward, of Waterbury.

1821 "Leaden Pipes for Aqueducts," American Advocate (Hallowell, Maine), July 21, 1821, Page 4.
Dudley Ladd, informs the public that he will be in Gardiner the first of July next and will be ready to execute all orders for Leaden Pipes for Aqueducts of any size from ⅜ inch and upwards.  For further information please apply to S.G. Ladd at Hallowell.

1822 "Lead Pipes for Aqueducts," Hartford Courant, April 30, 1822, Page 3.  Thomas K. Brace & Co., Hartford.

1822 "American Manufactured Patent Lead Pipe," The Evening Post (New York, New York) March 15, 1822, Page 1.
Thomas Ewbank, No. 25 John street.  Manhattan pipes laid.

1822 Richard Ward, Waterbury, Connecticut, Patent #3,549X for leaden pipes for aqueducts, July 5, 1822.

1822 The Man of Business; Or, the Gentleman's, Steward's, Appraiser's, Farmer's, and Tradesman's Useful Companion, by S.G. Lenny.
Pages 189-190:  Lead Pipe.  Conversion from diameters to pounds per yard.

1823 "Patent Lead Aqueducts," Hartford Courant, September 30, 1823, Page 4.  Charles Sigourney & Co., Agents for the Manufacturers.

1825 "Lead Aqueduct," The New England Farmer 4(18):137-138 (November 25, 1825)
The prices for lead pipe is as follows:
½ inch diameter, $1.50 per rod, and 10 cents per foot.
¾ inch $2 per rod, and 14 cts per foot
1 inch $3 per rod, and 20 cts. per foot
Thick pipe of the above dimensions 10½ cts. per pound.

1826 "Lead Pipe," Hartford Courant, August 7, 1826, Page 3.
Patent lead aqueduct pipe, Manufactured by the Shaker Village, Enfield, for sale in quantities to suit purchasers, by William H. Implay & Co.

1827 "Lead Aqueduct Pipe," Columbian Centinel (Boston, Massachusetts), June 13, 1827, Page 5.
The subscriber, Agent for the extensive Manufactory of Washbourne & Goddard, Worcester, for manufacturing Lead Pipes, has received and offers for sale at the Agricultural Warehouse, No. 52, North Market-street, a large supply of all size Pipe, from ⅜ to 2½ inch, made of the best materials, warranted sound, and equal to any English Pipe ever imported into this county, and which is offered at wholesale or retail, on the most favourable terms.  Any quantity and any size can be burnished and delivered at the shortest notice.  Contracts for furnishing and laying Pipe in any part of the country, can be made on application to J R Newell, Agent.

1828 Theophilus Packard, Shelburn, Franklin County, Massachusetts, Patent #5,090X for process of testing leaden pipes for conveying water, April 29, 1828.

1828 An act to establish the Lead Pipe Manufacturing Company.  June 11, 1828.  Massachusetts.  David Loring, Samuel Burr, Lincoln Fearing, and Moses Prichard.

1829 "Leaden Pipe," Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette, September 29, 1829, Page 1.
I have commended the manufacture of leaden pipe, and will furnish, and lay the same, at the most reasonable rate.  John Sheriff.

1829 "Of poisoning with lead," A Treatise on Poisons: In Relation to Medical Jurisprudence, Physiology, and the Practice of Physic, by Sir Robert Christison

1829 A History of the County of Berkshire, Massachusetts, in Two Parts: The First Being a General View of the County; the Second, an Account of the Several Towns, by Chester A. Dewey and David Dudley Field.
Pages 33-34:  The construction of aqueducts of wooden or earthen pipes, has been found too unprofitable in this County to be deserving of repetition, except on a very small scale. The strength of the materials is not sufficient to endure the pressure of the water, when carried to any considerable distance, even if they be laid so low as to escape the influence of frost, a point rarely effected. The resort must be to pipes of lead or cast iron. The lead pipes are now made in Adams for this purpose; and the employment of them is becoming relatively common. The only disadvantage of these pipes, is the formation of a small quantity of carbonate of lead, Which may act as a poison upon those who use the water conveyed in them, unless there be provision for the deposition of this poison in a reservoir. Iron pipes are entirely free from this evil. In the celebrated Water-Works at Philadelphia, only pipes of cast iron are used; and are considered on the whole as the cheapest.

1830 Connecticut Courant, March 23, 1830, Page 1.
Aqueduct Pipes.  The subscribers are commencing the manufacture of Leaden Aqueduct Pipes at the works of Isaac & Geo. C. Kellogg, New-Hartford.

1830 "Mode in which the poison of lead is conveyed into the system," The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 3(10):160-161 (April 20, 1830)

1832 US Patent 7,060X?, Coating lead pipes with tin, May 16, 1832, Thomas Ewbank

1833 "Specification of a patent for Coating Lead Pipes with Tin. Granted to Thomas Ewbank, city of New York, May 16, 1832," Journal of the Franklin Institute 10:333-334 (November, 1832)

1834 "Experiments and Observations on the Action of Water and Air on Lead," by Captain Philip Yorke, The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Third Series 5(26):81-95 (August, 1834)

1835 "Report on Thomas Ewbank's improved Process for Tinning Lead Pipes," Journal of the Franklin Institute, New Series, Volume 15:310-311 (May, 1835)

1835 "Report of the Agent to the Board of Inspectors of the State Prison at Auburn," by Levi Lewis, December, 1835.  Assembly Document No. 125.
Page 14:  The water used for cooking in the prison, is brought in logs from a spring about 150 rods from the prison. Many of these logs have become decayed, and it is quite probable, that it will be necessary to remove all of them, in the course of the next summer. As a matter of economy, I would suggest the propriety of putting down lead pipe instead of pump-logs. The first cost would be considerable more for the pipe than for the logs; but I am confident, that, in time, the lead pipe would be the most economical and least expensive to the State.

1836 "Lead Pipe," The Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopaedia, Comprehending Practical Illustrations of the Machinery and Processes Employed in Every Description of Manufacture of the British Empire, by Luke Hebert

1838 "On the Action of Water on Lead, in relation to Medical Police," by Alfred S. Taylor, Guy's Hospital Reports 3:60-91 (1838)

1838 Sketch of the civil engineering of North America: comprising remarks on the harbours, river and lake navigation, lighthouses, steam-navigation, water-works, canals, roads, railways, bridges, and other works in that country, by David Stevenson
Page 290-291: The following account of the water-works which have lately been established at Cincinnati, on the Ohio in the State of Ohio, is given by Mr Davies the Superintendent.
"From these it is conveyed into private dwellings in leaden pipes at the expense of the inhabitants, who pay from eight to twelve dollars per annum, according to the purposes for which it is used."

1839 "Notices of the Effects of Lead Upon the System," by James Alderson, M.A. & M.D., Read January 8, 1839, Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, 22:82-94 (1839)

1839 US Patent 1,463, Mold for Casting and Machine for Drawing Lead Pipes, December 31, 1839, Joseph C. Vaughan and Fredk. Leach, of Tioga, New York.

1841 Journal of the Franklin Institute, Third Series, Volume 1 (February, 1841)
Pages 112-113: For a machine for Manufacturing Lead Pipes, Joseph C. Vaughan, and Frederick Leach, Tioga county, New York, December 31, 1839. 

1841 "Improved Leaden Pipe," The Evening Post (New York, New York), April 13, 1841, Page 2.
Any length from 15 to 300 feet.  All ordinary sizes and weight, from ½ to 4½ inches internal diameter. Tatham and Brothers.

1841 US Patent 2,021, Machine for making or manufacturing pipes and tubes from lead or other metallic substances, March 29, 1841, John Hanson and Charles Hanson of Huddersfield, England, assignors to Ben. Tatham, Jr., and Henry R. Tatham.  Reissued USRE 82, March 14, 1846

1841 "Paralysis from lead in water used for drink," To Dr. George Gregory from W. V. Oke, M.D., Southhampton, September 9, 1841, Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 2(25):493-494 (September 18, 1841) | also here |

1841 "On paralysis from lead in water used for drink," by W. Collyns, Kenton, near Exeter, September 21, 1841, Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 3(53):8 (October 2, 1841) | also here |

1841 US Patent 2,296, Machine for making pipes or tubes of Lead, October 11, 1841,  George N. Tatham and Benjamin Tatham, Jr., of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1841 Patent improved leaden pipe and composition gas tubes, by Tatham & Brothers.

1842 Journal of the Franklin Institute, Third Series, Volume 3 (January 1842)
Pages 49-50:  Report on Tatham & Brothers' Lead Pipes
Pages 66-67:  "Notice of Tatham & Brothers Improved Manufacture of Lead, and other Soft Metal Pipe,"

1842 "On the Action of Water Upon Lead," by Robert Christison, M.D. Read February 7, 1842. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 15:265-176 (1844)

1842 Report of the joint special committee, on the subject of the effects of lead pipes upon well-water, in the city of Lowell. August 1, 1842. Report written by Samuel L. Dana, M.D.

1842 "New Invention," The Baltimore Sun, August 10, 1842, Page 2.
It is said that prepared paper is about to be manufactured as a substitute for lead pipe to convey the Croton water into houses.-- N.Y. Era.
We advise the New Yorkers to beware and not use any of the political papers in manufacturing said pipes.  They are so full of lie, the water might be come impregnated, and become unpalateable.

1842 The Evening Post (New York), August 12, 1842, Page 2.
The Public Health - Mineral Poisons - The Croton Water - Lead Pipe and Lead Colic by Theobald Mathew, Jr.

1842 "On the Action of Water on Lead," by Prof. Christison, The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 8:493 (October, 1842)

1843 US Patent 2,918, Machinery and process of manufacturing pipes, January 20, 1843, James E. Serrell, New York, N. Y.,  .  Used tin to make pipes

1843 "Valuable Improvement," The Evening Post, May 19, 1843, Page 4.  James E. Serrell's tin pipe, examined and endorsed by Samuel F. B. Morse.

1843 "Croton Water Block Tin Pipes," New York Evening Post, August 7, 1843, Page 4.  Manufactured by James E. Serrell.

1844 US Patent 3,475, Machinery for the manufacture of lead pipes, March 9, 1844, Charles Sellers and George Escol Sellers, of Cincinnati, Ohio.

1844 "Action of Water on Lead," Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 31:321-323 (November 20, 1844)

1845 "Of poisoning with lead," A Treatise on Poisons: In Relation to Medical Jurisprudence, Physiology, and the Practice of Physic, First American, from the Fourth Edinburgh Edition, by Sir Robert Christison

1845 George H. Tatham and others v. David Loring, 5 N.Y. Leg. Obs. 207, May Term, 1845, Circuit Court, District of Massachusetts

1845 "A Day at a Copper and Lead Factory," Sears' Guide to Knowledge, edited by Robert Sears

1847 Patent Improved Lead Pipe Sheet Lead and Composition Gas Tubes, Manufactured by Tatham & Brothers, Office 15 Minor Street, Philadelphia, and 249 Water Street, New York, by William H. Rease, lithograph (August, 1847)

1847 US Patent 5,253, Lead-pipe machinery, August 21, 1847, Samuel G. Cornell, of Greenwich, Connecticut

1847 Cornell's Improved Patent Lead Pipe, Sheet Lead, &c.

1848 "A Visit to LeRoy & Co's Lead Pipe Manufactory," by John Cowles, The Farmer and Mechanic 4:139 (March 23, 1848).  In New York City.
These coils of lead pipes are all sizes from 1-8 of an inch to 5 inches calibre.  With three men he can with ease make upwards of ten tons of lead pie in 12 hours.  The length of this quantity of pipe would depend upon its weight per foot.  If estimated to average 1 3-4 lbs. per foot it would extend upwards of two miles.

1848 "A Visit to LeRoy & Co's Lead Pipe Manufactory," The Farmer and Mechanic 4:191 (April 20, 1848).  Letter clarifying that Messrs. T. Otis LeRoy & Co. are manufacturing lead pipe under license from Samuel G. Cornell's 1847 patent [No. 5,253].

1848 Report of the Water Commissioners on the Material Best Adapted for Distribution Water Pipes: And on the Most Economical Mode of Introducing Water in Private Houses

1848 Lead Diseases: a Treatise from the French of L. Tanquerel Des Planches: With Notes and Additions on the Use of Lead Pipe and Its Substitutes, Louis Tanquerel des Planches, translated by Samuel L. Dana

1848 Lead pipe, its danger: a rejoinder to the reply of Prof. Horsford to the argument in the appendix to Tanquerel, by Samuel Luther Dana.

1849 Service-pipes for water : an investigation made at the suggestion of the Board of Consulting Physicians of Boston by Eben Norton Horsford; from the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2:62-99  (November 8, 1848)

1848 "Case of Lead Poisoning, with Recovery," by John C. Dalton , Jr., M.D., Read before the Boston Society for Medical Observation, June 5, 1848, from American Journal of Medical Sciences, New Series, 18(36):358-368 (October, 1849)

1849 "On a remarkable case of the action of spring water on lead," by William West, Esq., Highfield House, near Leeds, Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 2:162-168 (September 27, 1843)

1849 "Lead poison," Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery, Series 3, 4(5):458-460 (November 1, 1849)

1850 "Special Report on Lead Poisoning in the City of New Orleans," by Erasmus Darwin Fenner, Southern Medical Reports 2:247-280. | also here |

1850 US Patent No. 7,624, Manufacture of lead pipe, September 3, 1850, by  William P. Tatham of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1851 Report from the Royal Commission on water supply to the metropolis and large towns and a report on the chemical quality of metropolis water with minutes of evidence, appendices and index, 1851-69. This set has over 40 volumes and includes many references to the effects of water on lead pipes.

1852 "Action of Water on Lead Pipes," The Medical Examiner, and Record of Medical Science 8:57 (January, 1852)
The attention of readers is requested to the following circular of the Committee appointed at the last meeting of the American Medical Association. It is only by a generous and hearty assistance from their professional brethren that the full benefit of these committees is to be obtained.
To the Members of the Medical Profession in the United States.-- The undersigned, a Committee of the American Medical Association to report on "the action of water on lead pipes, and the diseases which proceed from it," are desirous of obtaining from their professional brethren any information that is calculated to throw light on this important, but hitherto generally unobserved subject. They therefore take the liberty of proposing the following questions.
1st. Have you, in your practice, met with cases of lead or painter's colic produced by using water drawn through lead pipes, or contained in leaden cisterns?
2d. Have you met with cases of arthrolgy? If so, have they been attributable to this cause?
3d. Have painful neuralgic diseases been observed by you, among persons using water thus exposed to lead?
4th. Have you seen instances of lead encephalopathy?
5. Have you observed paralysis as a precursor, concomitant or sequel to either of the above forms of disease?
Answers to any or all the foregoing questions, and any facts or information as to any form of disease originating in the use of water impregnated with lead, will be very gratefully received. Accurate descriptions of all cases would be desirable, especially their early history. It will also be very important to know the length of time each individual case had been exposed to lead before the disease became manifest.
As the report must be made at the annual meeting of the Association to be held in Richmond, Va., in May next, it is desirable that all information should be forwarded to any one of the Committee previous to the first of March next.
Horatio Adams, Waltham, Mass.
Sam'l L. Dana, Lowell,  "
John C. Dalton,  "      "
Waltham, December 5th, 1851.—Boston Med. and Surg. Journal.

1852 "The Croton Water -- Its action on lead, &c." from Scientific American 7(22):173 (February 14, 1852)

1852 "On the Action of Water on Lead Pipes, and the Diseases Proceeding from it," by Horatio Adams, M.D., of Waltham, Mass. from The Transactions of the American Medical Association, 5:163-236 (May, 1852)

1852 US Patent 8,943, Lead-Pipe Machinery, May 11, 1852, Benj. Tatham, of New York, N.Y.

1852 "On the effects of lead upon the system," by James Alderson, M.D., The Lancet 2:73-75 (July 24, 1852)

1852 "Critical Analysis," The Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, 77:153-199. Review of several works on lead poisoning.

1852 Some observations on the contamination of water by the poison of lead : and its effects on the human body : together with remarks on some other modes in which lead may be injurious in domestic life, by James Bower Harrison

1852 Essay by Dr. Charles T. Jackson, of Boston, Massachusetts: lead pipes used as conduits for drinking water : contrasted with pure block tin pipes : brief history of lead diseases, New-York, April, 1852   

1853 Le Roy v. Tatham, 55 U.S. 156, (January 10, 1853).  Lead pipe manufacturing patent infringement case. | earlier case here | Wikipedia page |

1853 "Water Pipes," Washington Sentinel (Washington, D.C.), October 15, 1853, Page 3.
Many families use lead pipes for bringing water into their dwellings from mains and fountain heads.  These are regarded as deleterious.

1856 Daily Union (Washington, D.C.), February 23, 1856, Page 3.
Water-Pipes.-- Pipes of gutta-percha are, to a great extent, superseding the use of lead pipes for conveying water in London.  Being free from poisonous deposits and the attacks of froze, they are much preferred.  Pipes of vulcanized India-rubber are used to some extent.

1856 US Patent No. 15,620, Improvement in making lead pipes, August 16, 1856, John Robertson, of Brooklyn, N.Y.

1856 "Poisoning from Lead Pipes," The Louisville Daily Courier, November 28, 1856, Page 2.

1857 "Poison of Lead," written for the Ohio Farmer, by J.P. Kirtland, M.D., Professor in the Cleveland Medical College, The Ohio Farmer 6(5):2 (January 31, 1857)

1858 "Pipes for Conducting Water," by Charles Stearns, New England Farmer 10(7):325-327 (July 1858).  Stearns owned the water system in Springfield, Massachusetts for many years.
Page 327:  I will remark, however, that as to the poisonous effects of lead pipe, I used constantly, for twenty years at least, water drawn through a lead pipe, and neither my family nor myself experienced any bad effects, nor have I ever known a well authenticated instance of the injurious effects of such pipe, but I have heard of such instances, and it is probable that they have existed.  All my leading pipe, conducting the water from the mains to houses and other places where the water is used, are of lead.

1858 "Aqueduct Water," The States (Washington, D.C.), October 1, 1858, Page 3.

1858 "Lead Pipes," The States (Washington, D.C.), October 4, 1858, Page 3.

1858 "Potomac Water Lead-Pipes," Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), October 8, 1858, Page 2.

1858 Semi-Elastic Pope, or Hose, Being a Perfect Substitute for Lead Pipe.  Patented by Charles McBurney, 1858.

1859 "Lead Water Pipes," Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), May 26, 1859, Page 3.

1859 "On the action of hard waters upon lead," by W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.L.S., The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 9 N.S.:245:258 (January-April. 1859)

1859 "On the action of hard waters upon lead (concluded)," by W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.L.S., The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 10 N.S.:8-25 (July-October. 1859)

1859 Collection of reports (condensed) and opinions of chemists in regard to the use of lead pipe for service pipe: in the distribution of water for the supply of cities, by James Pugh Kirkwood.

1860 "An Important Decision," The Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee), April 20, 1860, Page 2.

1860 Daily Confederation (Mobile, AL), April 22, 1860, Page 3.
An Important Decision.--The long pending suit of the State of Alabama vs. Albert Stein, accused of "supplying the citizens of Mobile with poisonous water," called in our Court some time ago and venue changed to Baldwin county, was closed before Judge Rapier on Thursday, and the defendant found guilty and fined $2,000--the highest penalty allowed by the statute.  We learn from parties who were in attendance at the trial, that the water of the Mobile Waterworks, of which Mr. S. is the proprietor, along with water taken from a brook in Baldwin county, was subjected to a chemical analysis before the jury, and that the effect produced upon the Waterworks water was exactly the same as upon the brook water after dropping a handful of shot into it.  Proof was also received of the poisonous qualities of lead.  Another point proved, as we learn from the same source, was, that in all cities into which water has been introduced through pipes, iron pipes are used a leading pipes universally, while the Mobile Waterworks have, in a great number of instances, used lead pipes for leads.
Another suit, Same vs. Same, for non-fulfillment of contract to supply a sufficient quantity of water for extinguishing fires, was called and laid over on account of absence of witnesses.
R. H. Smith and R. B. Armistead, Esqs., for the State; Dargan & Taylor for the defense.-- Mobile Advertiser.

1860 "Local Decomposition in Lead Aqueduct Pipes," by Mr. J.R. Nichols, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 63(8):149-152 (September 20, 1860)

1861 Stein v. The State, 37 Ala. 123, Supreme Court of Alabama, February 28, 1861.  Alabama Supreme Court overturned Stein's conviction for lead poisoning

1861 "Corrosion of Lead in Water Pipes," by J.R. Nichols Scientific American 5(5):68 (August 3, 1861) | also here |

1861 "Poison by lead pipes," Scientific American 5(5):74 (August 3, 1861) | also here |

1861 "Fifty Prisoners in the County Jail Poisoned by Drinking Water Impregnated with Carbonate of Lead," The New York Times, August 30, 1861, Page 5.
On Tuesday night last, about twenty of the prisoners confined in the Kings County Jail, were seized with vomiting and purging, accompanied by other symptoms, indicating that they had partaken of some deadly poison. Dr. CHARLES A. VAN ZANDT, the Jail Physician, was at once sent for by the keepers and by judicious management succeeded in saving the lives of all attacked, numbering, up to yesterday, about 50 of the inmates of the jail. When Dr. VAN ZANDT examined the first case, he was considerable puzzled to know in what manner the prisoners had been poisoned, but after a while he arrived at the conclusion that it must have been from the Ridgewood water, with which the jail is supplied throughout, in the common lead pipe. Fortunately he hit upon the right cause and was able to neutralize the reflects of the poison. He at once ordered the Ridgewood water to be cut off, and directed that well water -- of which there is an abundance on the premises -- should be used.
Yesterday Dr. VAN ZANDT analyzed a small quantity of water which had passed through the lead pipes, and found it strongly impregnated with carbonate of lead. He will make a report to the Board of Supervisors, at the next meeting of that body, -- which will be on Tuesday, -- urging that the common lead pipe with which the jail is now furnished be removed, and a lined pipe substituted, to avoid a recurrence of a similar accident.
An attache of the jail, who did not believe that the prisoners had been poisoned by the water, in a spirit of bravado on Wednesday morning, drank plentifully of the water, not with standing the warnings of the attending physician. Before night he was seized with purging and vomiting, and suffered severely for his folly. His case, however, yielded under the same treatment as practiced in the other cases, and he, as well as all of the others poisoned, are now considered out of danger.

1861 "Local Decomposition in Lead Aqueduct Pipes," by Mr. J.R. Nichols, The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science 4:139 (September 14, 1861)

1861 Semi-elastic pipe, or hose, being a perfect substitute for lead pipe. : Patented by Charles McBurney, 1858. Of all sizes from one-half inch to three inches in diameter ... now with confidence offered to the public, for the suction, forcing, or conducting of water in every or any place where pipe is required

1862 Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), October 10, 1862, Page 2.
The Savannah Republican of the 24th ult. contains an ernest appeal for lead.  It says the people of Charleston have pulled up their lead pipes, and contributed 60,000 pounds to the government, and that the Confederate Government will issue receipts for all leaden pipes and other fixtures, and bind itself to replace them at the close of the war.

1864 Rules and regulations governing the introduction, supply, and consumption of water from the Louisville Water Works, adopted November 28, 1864.
Page 2:  In all cases service pipe between the distributing pipe in the street and the stopcocks on the sidewalk must be lead pipe, unless above two inches inside diameter, in which cases cast iron pipe may be used.

1864 "Water Pipes for Hydrants, Pumps, etc.," from  Bliven, Mead & Co.'s Illustrated Catalogue and Price List of American, German, English and French Hardware  

1865 Colwells, Shaw & Willard, Manufacturers of Willard & Shaw's Patent Tin Line Lead Pipe.

1866 Report to the trustees of the Cleveland City Water Works of the analysis of the city water, by John Lang Cassels. | also here |
Page 23:  I am very much inclined to the opinion that both lead and galvanized iron pipes should be, as much as possible, discarded for service pipe in our city.

1868 US Patent 76,412, Improvement in the manufacture of tin-lined lead pipe, February 18, 1868 by William Anthony Shaw, of New York, N.Y.  Reissued as USRE3744, November 23, 1869.

1868 The Laws of the Corporation of the City of Washington: Digested and Arranged Under Appropriate Heads in Accordance with a Joint Resolution of the City Councils, Together with an Appendix, Containing a Digest of the Charter and Other Acts of Congress Concerning the City
Page 466:  The water service-pipe to be laid of three-quarter inch strong lead pipe.

1869 "Manufacture of Iron and Lead Pipes," Scientific American 21(5):74 (July 31, 1869)

1869 US Patent 95,850, Lead pipe, October 12, 1869, by Benjamin Tatham, of New York, N.Y.

1870 "Croton Poisons," New York Daily Herald, April 11, 1870, Page 7.  Dangers of lead cisterns and pipes.

1871 "Poisoning by Lead Pipe Used for the Conveyance of Drinking Water," Second Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts, January, 1871 | also here | .

1872 "On the Action of Water on Lead," by Robert Christison, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 7:699-702 (April 25, 1872)

1872 "A Great Want Supplied," Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, May 21, 1872, Page 1.
A sanitary flexible metallic water pipe! 20 per cent cheaper than lead pipe.

1873 "The Water Pipe Question," Rochester Union & Advertiser, August 22, 1873, Page 2.  Composite Metal Pipes were patented in 1869 and widely advertised for a short time.  The material was a lower grade of Britannia metal.  Despite its claims, it was found to cause lead poisoning in Sacramento in 1872, which was reported in the Boston Journal of Science.

1874 "On Poisoning by lead in drinking water," by Dr. J. W. Van Tunzelman, Wimbledon, from The Retrospect of Practical Medicine and Surgery 68:26-29 (January, 1874)

1874 "On the Use of Zinced or Galvanized Iron for the Storage and Conveyance of Drinking Water," by W. E. Boardman, M.D., of Boston, Fifth Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts. January, 1874.

1874 Sixth Report of the Rivers Pollution Commission
Pages 221-226:  On the deterioration of potable water by transmission through mains and service pipes.

1875 "Lead-pipe," Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary, 2:1271-1272.

1877 "Report on the use of Leaden Pipe for Distributing Water for Domestic Purposes," by James Johnson, M.D., Health Officer,  Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Health, City of Milwaukee, for the year ending December 31, 1876

1877 "Lead Manufacturing Operations," The Manufacturer and Builder 9:172-173 (August 1877)

1880 "A Successful Aqueduct of Lead Pipe," by Robert Fletcher, Thayer School of Civil Engineering, Dartmouth College, from Engineering News, 8:411-413 (December 4, 1880).  Water works at Hanover, New Hampshire.

1881 "Service Pipes," discussion, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Water Works Association 1:14-15 (March, 1881)

1881 On the action of water upon lead pipes, being a translation from the French of M. Belgrand, with introductory remarks by W. Sedgwick Saunders, M.D., F.S.A.

1882 "Notes on Lead Pipes and Lead Contamination," by William Thomson, The Chemical News, 45:116-118 (March 17, 1882)

1882 "On the Action of Water upon Lead-Pipe," Translated from the French of M. Belgrand, by W. Sedgwick, The Sanitary Record, 3:438-439 (April 15, 1882)

1882 "Lead-poison," The Youth’s Companion 55:304 (July 20, 1882)

1882 "The Huddersfield Lead-Poisoning Case," Chemical News 46:88-89 (August 25, 1882)

1882 "The Action of Water on Lead," by Alfred H. Allen, Chemical News 46:145-146 (September 29, 1882)

1882 "The Action of Water on Lead," by Arnold Philip, Chemical News 46:170-171 (October 13, 1882)

1882 "Notes on the action of water on lead," by Alfred H. Allen, The Analyst 7:169-172 (October, 1882) Summary printed in The Sanitary Engineer 6:495 (November 9, 1882) | also here |

1882 US Patent 269,951, Manufacture of Lead Pipe, December 26, 1882, John Farrell, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania

1883 Milnes v. Mayor, &c., of Huddersfield, The Weekly Reporter, 31:568-569 (May 12, 1883).  Lead poisoning case in England

1883 Milnes v. The Mayor, Etc. of Huddersfield, November 15, 1883, Court of Appeal

1883 Engineering Record 8:560 (November 15, 1883)
Elsewhere we print the first of a series of articles on “The Use of Lead for Conveying and Storage of Water," by Prof. Wm. Ripley Nichols, of Boston, an authority on the subject. The action of an English jury in awarding £2,000 damages against a water company, because of the death of a man alleged to be due to drinking water conveyed through lead service pipes, suggested an interest in the subject aside from the sanitary considerations involved.

1883 "On the Use of Lead for Conveying and Storing Water No. I," by Prof. Wm. Ripley Nichols, The Sanitary Journal 8:561 (November 15, 1883).

1883 "On the Use of Lead for Conveying and Storing Water No. II," by Prof. Wm. Ripley Nichols,  The Sanitary Journal 8:587 (November 22, 1883). 

1883 "On the Use of Lead for Conveying and Storing Water No. III," by Prof. Wm. Ripley Nichols,. The Sanitary Journal 8:608-609 (November 29, 1883). 

1883 "On the Use of Lead for Conveying and Storing Water No. IV" by Prof. Wm. Ripley Nichols,. The Sanitary Journal 9:13-14 (December 6, 1883).

1883 "Lead Pipe and Water Companies' Liability," Engineering Record 9:63 (December 20, 1883).  Lead poisoning case in Huddersfield, England, see 1888 reference below.

1883 "On the Use of Lead for Conveying and Storing Water," by Prof. Wm. Ripley Nichols, No. V. Engineering Record 9:66 (December 20, 1883)
Of 335 places reporting on this matter, 100 use lead for service pipes to the practical exclusion of other material, and 67 use lead to a greater or lesser extent.  Of 85 cities and town of more than 20,000 inhabitants only 26 reject lead pipe altogether and 38 use it exclusively.

1883 Water Supply Considered Mainly from a Chemical and Sanitary Standpoint, by Prof. William Ripley Nichols of MIT
Pages 211-215: Service pipes

1883 History of the Town of Amherst, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire: (first Known as Narragansett Township Number Three, and Subsequently as Souhegan West) by David Franklin Secomb
Page 881-882:  Dea. Cyrus Eastman  Having an inventive genius he was constantly making experiments, and in 1815, or thereabout, devised a plan for making lead pipe, for which he obtained a patent, and engaged in its manufacture. In 1819 he went to New Orleans in the employ of a company who had a contract to furnish the city with water.  But the undertaking proved an unfortunate one, as most of the company sickened, and some died there.  The survivors returned home poorer but, perhaps, wiser men.  When Manchester began to be built up Mr. Eastman was one of a company to furnish the inhabitants with water by means of aqueducts.  He also furnished the pumps and pipes for the use of the railroad companies between Lowell and Franklin.  [Eastman probably went to Natchez rather than New Orleans, as the latter city used wooden logs to distribute water which were installed after Eastman had returned in New Hampshire.]

1884 "Unsuspected Lead Poisoning," The Lancet 123(3174):1182 (June 28, 1884)

1885 "Report on hygiene: lead-poisoning from warm-water pipes," by Henry Leffmann, M.D., Philadelphia Medical Times 15:459 (March 21, 1885)

1885 "Service pipe, material, size, etc.," by H.W. Richards, New London, Conn., Transactions of the New England Water Works Association 3:40-53 (June 1885)

1885 "Is Lead as a Conduit for Water Detrimental to Health," by Joseph P. Gallagher, of St. Louis, from Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention of the National Association of Master Plumbers of the United States of America 3:171-175

1885 The Sanitary News, 6(73):72 (June 27, 1885) "Is Lead As a Conduit for Water Detrimental to Health?" was discussed by the St. Louis association, in an essay read by Mr. Joseph P. Gallagher, the author. He thought that much anxiety and needless expense had been incurred, by persons of a nervous temperament, over the question, in the absence of any evidence that lead, as a conduit for water, was detrimental to health. He referred to the use of lead tor this purpose in ancient times, and in more recent periods. He then said: "We have found in all our experiments with lead as a conduit for water, that there are certain forms of organic matter found in the waters of rivers and springs which coat the inner surface of the lead with an insoluble film, of sufficient thickness to prevent the water being acted upon by the lead; we have found this film to be the same in hard and soft waters; we have found it so firmly attached to the pipe, and of such a thickness as to form an inner lining, and to require the pipe to be heated and thoroughly dried betore it could be removed.  We have frequently drawn pieces of perfect tubing, of from eight to twelve inches in length, thus leaving the inner surface of the pipe almost as bright as when first manufactured, thus showing conclusively that the water had not come in contact with the lead only a very short time after the pipes had been put in place. We have in our possession specimens of pipe that has been in use five, ten, seventeen and twenty-four years in this city. We put these pipes in with our own hands; we also removed them, therefore, there is no doubt as to the time of their use. We find the film, or inner lining, to have about the same thickness as all the specimens, notwithstanding the difference in the time they have been in use. We therefore have no hesitation in stating that, after more than thirty-five years of practical and experimental experience as a master plumber, we believe lead pipe to be the safest and best conduit for water that has yet been discovered.
"We regard lead as being the best, safest, and only material fit for a first class job of plumbing, which cannot be made first-class with any other material, for the following reasons: First, lead is a soft and pliable metal, and is easily and quickly put in place by a skillful workman. Second, it can be manufactured to stand any pressure, from the lightest to the very heaviest. Third, it will last longer than any other material known to the plumbing profession. Fourth, it is easily, quickly, and cheaply repaired, in case of bursting from frost, only requiring the removal of a small piece to put the work in thorough order, and at a trifling expense. Lead pipe is known to have been taken up, after having been in use two hundred years, and was found to be of the same weight as when placed in the ground; this case occurred in Paris, France, and a perfect record has been kept, thus showing the exact time the pipes were in use.  We should require legal protection from the quack plumber as well as from the quack doctor, the former being much more dangerous than the the quack doctor, nd to this end the master plumbers of the city of St. Louis used every honorable means to have an ordinance passed, to have practical plumbers appointed, to inspect and test all plumbing work in buildings and require the work to be done in accordance with the law governing the plumber as required by ordinance. This ordinance hardly had a hearing, and proved to be an abortive attempt on the part of the master plumbers, and was looked upon in the light that the plumbers were trying to get up a corner in their profession. Instead of this we were trying to inaugurate a thorough sanitary system of plumbing, and to the lasting disgrace of the city of St. Louis, this ordinance died before it was born.
"Lead is the only material that should be permitted to be used for any job of plumbing, placed in the hands of a first-class workman, who has learned his business in the United States, — we say the United States because our varied experience with the plumbers from all countries has long since taught us that the best plumbers, and the best plumbing work in the world is to be found this day upon the American continent."
Mr. Gallagher submitted the pieces of pipe, to which he referred, for examination.

1885 "Facts about Lead," The Inter Ocean (Chicago, Illinois), July 18, 1885, Page 7. | Part 2 |
"Is lead as a conduit for water detrimental to health?" by J.P. Gallagher.

1885 "On the Action of Water on Lead," (title only) by A. H. Allen, read September 16, 1885, Report of the Fifty-Fifth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Page 993.

1885 "Lead Poisoning from Waterpipes," Liverpool Mercury, September 17, 1885, Page 7.

1885 "Water and Lead Pipes," The Huddersfield Chronicle and West Yorkshire Advertiser, September 18, 1885, Page 3.
On Wednesday, at the Meeting of the British Association at Aberdeen, Mr. A. H. Allen of Sheffield, the county analyst, read a paper on lead poisoning.

1885 "The Lead Poisoning Question," The Leeds Mercury, October 10, 1885, Page 3.

1886 "The Redmires Water," Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, March 5, 1886, Page 4.
Its action on lead pipes, cases of lead poisoning.  Dr. Sinclair White, medical officer of health, has presented an able and exhaustive report to the Health Committee.

1886 "Lead poisoning in the borough of Sheffield," by Sinclair White, Annual Report on Health of Sheffield for 1885, April 25, 1886.

1886 Milnes v. Mayor and Corporation of Huddersfield, 11 App. Cas. 511, July 16, 1886

1886 The Times (London, England), July 17, 1886, Page 11. | part two |

1886 "The Huddersfield Lead Poisoning Case," The Huddersfield Chronicle and West Yorkshire Advertiser, July 17, 1886, Page 5.

1886 "The Huddersfield Lead Poisoning Case," The Huddersfield Chronicle and West Yorkshire Advertiser, July 17, 1886, Page 8.

1886 "The 'Times' on the Huddersfield Lead Poisoning Case," Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, July 24, 1886, Page 6.

1886 "Lead-Poisoning from Service-Pipes," The British Medical Journal 2:174 (July 24, 1886)

1886 "The Huddersfield Water-Supply Law-Suit," The Sanitary Engineer 14:272 (August 19, 1886)

1886 "On the Action of Drinking-water on Lead," (title only) by Dr. C. Meymott Tidy, read September 4, 1886, Report of the Fifty-Sixth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Page 583. 

1886 Report on the Action of Water on Lead, by Sir William Crookes, William Odling, Charles Meymott Tidy.  Prepared for the Water Committee of the Huddersfield Corporation.

1886 "The British Association," The Times (London, England), September 6, 1886, Page 10.
Dr. Tidy read a report prepared by Mr. Crookes, Dr. Odling, and himself, on "the Action of Drinking Water on Lead."

1886 "The Huddersfield Water Case," and "The Actions of Water on Lead Pipe," The Huddersfield Chronicle and West Yorkshire Advertiser, September 7, 1886, Page 3.

1886 "Sheffield Water Supply," by Sinclair White, The Lancet 128(3290):538 (September 18, 1886)

1886 "The Action of Water on Lead," Medical News 49:559 (November 13, 1886)
Prof. Crookes and Drs. Odling and C. Meymott Tidy contributed a valuable paper on “The Action of Water on Lead" to the proceedings of the recent meeting of the British Association. They find that the action of a soft water on lead pipes does not depend upon its degree of softness, but to the amount of silica it contains.  When the silica was as low as 0.3 grain per gallon, the water dissolved the lead; but where it was more than 0.5 grain, the water had no solvent action on the lead pipes. It is therefore recommended that the water should be filtered at the works, and that where necessary the filter~beds be so modified as to insure the silication of the water. They are inclined to the belief that when the amount of lead in the water does not exceed 0.05 grain per gallon, it will not produce any hurtful effect.

1886 "Lead-Poisoning by Potable Water," by R. Thorne Thorne, The Practitioner 37(6):464-477 (December, 1886)

1886 "Chronic lead poisoning from drinking water conveyed through a lead pipe," by Frederick W. Jones, M.D., Report of the New Hampshire State Department of Health 5:211-212 (1886)

1887 "The Action of Certain Waters on Lead Pipes," English Mechanic and the World of Science 45(1151):144-145 (April 15, 1887)

1887 "Lead poison," Harper’s Bazaar 20(34):580 (August 20, 1887)
Modern civilization has brought many comforts along with it; but how many of the comforts have dragged danger in their train!  This is as apparent in the matter of the pipes which carry drinking water into our houses as in anything else.  Chemists have been long engaged in the effort to find a harmless conveyance, and so to avoid poisoning from the lead tubing now in general use.  Lead pipes, it is conceded, are dangerous, although only about one in a thousand may be affected by them; still, everybody feels that he may be that one.  The chief results of the research so far appear to be the certainty that snow-water, that is, the water which melts off the roofs of country houses and feeds their cisterns, is unsafe when conducted in lead pipes, and that lead pipes lined with tin, once supposed to give additional safety, really give great danger, as the alloy of lead and tine is more susceptible to the action of water than is lead alone.

1887 "Lead in St. Louis Hydrant Water," by C. O. Curtman, M.D., read before the Medico-Chirurgical Society, September 6, 1887, St. Louis Courier of Medicine 18(5):385-388 (November, 1887)

1887 Water Works, A. H. Howland, Geo. A. Ellis, Engineers.
Page 138:  It has been decided by both the American and New England Water Works Associations that lead pipes are the most reliable and, in the end, the cheapest.  No authenticated case of lead poisoning from the use of lead service pipes has ever been recorded.

1888 "The action of Boston water on certain sorts of service pipe," by William Ripley Nichols and L.K. Russell, read October 29, 1887, Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies 7(1):12-14 (January, 1888)

1888 "Lead In The Sheffield Water Supply," The British Medical Journal 1(1412):147-148 (January 21, 1888) | also here |

1888 "Lead Poisoning at Sheffield," The Lancet 1:137 (January 21, 1888)

1888 "The Sheffield Water Supply and Lead Poisoning," by Alfred H. Allen, The Sanitary Record 9:356-357 (February 15, 1888)

1888 "The Action of Different Water-Supplies upon Lead-Pipes," The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 118(15):369-370 (April 12, 1888) Review of Allen's article on Sheffield.

1888 "Lead Pipes-Stables," The Sanitary Record 10:96 (August 15, 1888)

1888 "On the Employment of Lead Pipes for Conveying Water for Ordinary Use I," by A. Hamon (Paris), The Sanitary Record 10:105-108 (September 15, 1888)

1888 "On the Employment of Lead Pipes for Conveying Water for Ordinary Use II," by A. Hamon (Paris), The Sanitary Record 10:159-160 (October 15, 1888)

1888 "On the Employment of Lead Pipes for Conveying Water for Ordinary Use III," by A. Hamon (Paris), The Sanitary Record 10:267-270 (December 15, 1888)

1888 "The Corrosion of Lead Water Pipes," by Thomas Carnelly and William Frew, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 7:15-20 (January 31, 1888) | also here | discussion page 78 |

1888 "Memoir of David Loring," by E. H. Hoar, Memoirs of Members of the Social Circle in Concord: 2nd. ser., from 1795 to 1840. Loring's grave 

1888 Notes for a History of Lead, by William Henry Pulsifer

1889 "On the Employment of Lead Pipes for Conveying Water for Ordinary Use IV," by A. Hamon (Paris), The Sanitary Record 10:367-368 (February 15, 1889).  Includes a list of 105 cases of lead poisoning from water pipes from England, United States, and elsewhere.

1889 "On lead-poisoning from service pipes, in relation to sterility and abortion," by Alfred Swann, British Medical Journal 1(1468):352 (February 16, 1889) | also here |

1889 "Lead-Poisoning at Bacup Due to Water Contamination, with Hints on its Prevention," by John Brown, The Sanitary Record 10:464-466 (April 15, 1889)

1889 "The Action of Water on Lead," by Percy F. Frankland, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 8:241-252 (April 30, 1889)

1889 "On the Employment of Lead Pipes for Conveying Water for Ordinary Use V," by A. Hamon (Paris), The Sanitary Record 10:565-567 (June 15, 1889)

1889 "Lead in Urban Water Supplies," The British Medical Journal, 1:1414 (June 22, 1889)

1889 "The Action of Water Upon Lead," by Rowland Williams, Industries 7:19-20 (July 5, 1889)

1889 "On the Employment of Lead Pipes for Conveying Water for Ordinary Use VI," by A. Hamon (Paris), The Sanitary Record 11:54-57 (August 15, 1889)

1889 "A discussion on the contamination of drinking-water by lead," by Sinclair White, T.B. Fairclough and John Brown, British Medical Journal 2(1496):459–462 (August 31, 1889) | also here |

1889 "A Discussion on the Contamination of Drinking Water on Lead," The Sanitary Record 11:125-127 (September 16, 1889)
Sinclair White, M.D. and T.R. Fairclough

1889 "Lead Poisoning by Potable Water," The Lancet, 134(3450):753 (October 12, 1889)

1889 "Observations on the Occurrence of Lead in Boston Drinking-Water," by Edward M. Greene, New England Journal of Medicine, 121(22):533-534. (November 28, 1889)

1889 Clinical and Chemical Observations on Plumbism, Due to Lead-polluted Water: With Hints on Its Prevention, by John Brown, thesis presented for the Doctorate in Medicine in the Victoria University, October, 1889.

1890 "The action of potable waters on lead," by Gilbert Kirker, British Medical Journal 1(1515):71–72 (January 11, 1890) | also here |

1890 "Wholesale Lead-Poisoning at Sheffield," The Lancet 135(3464):146-147 (January 18, 1890)

1890 "Lead Poisoning and the Water Supply of Towns," The Sanitary Record 11-392-393 (February 15, 1890)

1890 "Lead in Public Water Supplies," The British Medical Journal, 1:139-140 (January 18, 1890)

1890 "Lead in Public Water Supplies," The British Medical Journal, 1:489 (February 22, 1890)

1890 "Report on lead poisoning from drinking water in Yorkshire I," British Medical Journal 1(1530):974–980 (April 26, 1890) | also here |

1890 "Report on lead poisoning from drinking water in Yorkshire II," British Medical Journal 1(1531):1029–1036 (May 3, 1890) | also here |

1890 "Report on lead poisoning from drinking water in Yorkshire III," British Medical Journal 1(1532):1097–1102 (May 10, 1890) | also here |

1890 "Report on lead poisoning from drinking water in Yorkshire IV," British Medical Journal 1(1533):1155–1161 (May 17, 1890) | also here |

1890 "Lead-Poisoning from Drinking Water," The British Medical Journal, 2:471 (August 23, 1890)

1890 "A discussion on lead poisoning from drinking water," by Theodore Thomson, Alfred Carpenter, S. Monckton Copeman, and W.N. Thursfield, British Medical Journal 2(1548):496–498 (August 30, 1890) | also here |
RESOLUTION. On the motion of the PRESIDENT, seconded by Dr. Louis Parkes, the following resolution was adopted and directed to be transmitted to the Council of the Association: "That the Local Government Board be respectfully requested to undertake the investigation of the lead-dissolving properties of various public water supplies in this country."

1890 "Lead Poisoning by Soft Water Supplies," by Percy F. Frankland, The Sanitary Record 12:116-117 (September 15, 1890)

1890 "Lead Poisoning," The British Medical Journal, 2:1080 (November 8, 1890)

1890 "Lead in Public Water Supplies," The British Medical Journal, 2:1204 (November 22, 1890)

1891 "The Action of Soft Water on Lead Pipes," The Fireman's Journal 9(1) (January 3, 1891)

1891 "Note on the action of waters upon lead pipe," by Elwyn Waller, Journal of the American Chemical Society 13:176-178 (June 5, 1891)

1891 "Lead In The Sheffield Water Supply," The British Medical Journal 2(1595):197 (July 25, 1891) | also here |

1891 "Lead Poisoning in Sheffield," The Lancet 138(3544):245-246 (August 1, 1891)

1891 "Lead Poisoning by Sheffield Water-Supply," by W.H. Hill-Harland, The Lancet 138(3457):471 (August 22, 1891)

1891 The action of water on lead : being an inquiry into the cause and mode of the action and its prevention, by John Henry Garrett

1892 “A National Danger: Lead Poisoning from Service Pipes,” by Alfred Swann, The Lancet, 140(3595):194–195 (July 23, 1892)

1892 "Plumbism in Hnddersfield from Lead Polluted Water," by Arthur B. Winder, Honley, Huddersfield, Thesis, University of Edinburgh

1893 "A Review of Recent Plumbing Practice," by Glenn Brown, Washington, D.C. Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Convention of the American Institute of Architects, Held at Chicago July 31 and August 1, 1893.
Page 268-269:  The Effects of Pipe on Health.
Lead pipe has been traditionally injurious to health from the time of Vitruvius, 2,000 years ago, to the present day. In spite of this tradition, millions of people have been drinking water through it from that day to the present time, and it seems to be doubtful if one well authenticated case of lead-poisoning by the use of lead pipes can be found.
Lead tanks subjected to the action of air and water alternately are undoubtedly injurious, but the opinion of all experts who have recently examined the question quite thoroughly in France, England and Germany is that lead pipe is not to be feared except in unusual circumstances, to which it is never subjected in actual use. Paris uses it in 39,500 houses, Berlin in 20,000, yet no cases of lead poisoning could be discovered by a commission appointed to examine the question. The British Institute of Civil Engineers makes a similar report; 10,000,000 people daily drinking water through leaden pipes would probably be a very low estimate of the fact, and still not a case in a year has even been attributed to lead poisoning by this means.

1894 "On the occurrence of lead in city drinking waters," by William B. Hills, M.D., Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 131:632-633 (December 27, 1894). 

1894 Bulletin of the public library of the city of Boston
Page 115-116 Lead-Pipe Poisoning

1894 Charles Millar & son, Utica N.Y., U.S.A. :er works, plum... wrought iron pipe, cast iron pipe, lead pipe, block tin pipe, akron vitrified sewer pipe ; valves fittings and supplies of every description for water works, plumbers, steam and gas fitters

1895 "The Lead Industry," from One Hundred Years of American Commerce: A History of American Commerce by One Hundred Americans, with a Chronological Table of the Important Events of American Commerce and Invention Within the Past One Hundred Years, Volume 2

1895 Annual report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts.
Page xxiv:  Lead Poisoning by Means of the Use of Lead Pipes for the Conveyance of Drinking Water.
Page 30:  Report on lead poisoning from lead pipes in Kingston.

1895 Montgomery Ward & Co. Catalogue No. 57
Page 416:  Lead pipe.  Price per pound $0.06½.
We can furnish lead pipe any size at the above price.  When ordering always give the diameter and length wanted, not the weight.

1896 "Waste of Water in its relation to lead service pipes," by Oscar J. Kirby, Transactions of the British Association of Waterworks Engineers 1:160-172

1896 "Making Cast Iron Pipes," by Jesse Garrett, Journal of the New England Water Works Association 11(1):27-62  (September, 1896)  Includes a good history of lead and other pipes.

1896 Tables for estimating the cost of laying cast-iron water pipe by Edmond B. Weston
Page 12:  Table No. 8 Average cost of laying lead service pipe, including excavating and backfilling for the same.

1898 "An investigation of the action of water upon lead, tin and zinc, with especial reference to the use of lead pipes with Massachusetts water supplies," by H.W. Clark, Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts 30:541-585 (1898)

1899 "More lead poisoning from water pipes; thirty cases reported," The Sanitarian 43:230-233 (September, 1899)

1899 "Continued lead poisoning in Lowell from water pipes," by Samuel W. Abbott, The Sanitarian 43:444-446 (November, 1899)

1899 "Synopsis of a paper upon the action of water upon lead, tin, and zinc, with especial reference to the use of lead pipes with Massachusetts water supplies," by H.W. Clark, American Public Health Association Reports 25:594-599 (1899)

1899 "Lead Poisoning," by Dr. F.L. Morse, Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts 31:xxxi-xxxix (1899)  Reports on 50 cases of lead poisoning in Massachusetts.

1900 "A Very Brief Discussion of Lead Poisoning Caused by Water Which Has Been Drawn Through Lead Service Pipe," by Fayette C. Forbes, Superintendent, Brookline, Mass., Water Works, Read February 14, 1900.  Journal of the New England Water Works Association 15(1):58-62 (September, 1900)

1900 "Continuation of an investigation of the action of water upon metallic or metal-lined service pipes, and methods for the separation and determination of metals in water," by Harry W. Clark and Fred B. Forbes, Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts 32:485-506  (1900)

1901 "The Production of Metallic Bars and Tubes under Pressure," by Perry F. Nursey, Journal of the Society of Engineers (London)

1902 "Lead poisoning as related to water supplies," by H.E. Barnard, New Hampshire Sanitary Bulletin 1:197-204, reprinted in The Sanitary Record & Journal 30:490-491 (November 20, 1902)

1903 Papers on lead poisoning and water supplies, Supplement to the Thirtieth Annual Report of the Local Government Board 1900-1901.

1903 Papers on lead-poisoning and water supplies:- Vol. II, Supplement to the Thirty-First Annual Report of the Local Government Board 1901-1902.

1904 Index-catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office, United States Army. Authors and subjects, Second Series, Volume 9 | Also here |
Pages 334-345 Lead poisoning
Pages 344-345:  Lead (Poisoning by) from water conveyed in pipes.

1904 "Lead," by Charles Kirchhoff, from Mineral Resources of the United States

1905 "Materials used for service pipes in Massachusetts," Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts, 37:195-205 (1905)

1906 "Two Cases of Lead Palsy, Dangers from use of lead pipes in water system," by Henry. C Baldwin, M.D., Boston, The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 155(18):511-513 (November 1, 1906)

1906 "The Danger of Lead Service Pipes," The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 155(18):521 (November 1, 1906)

1907 The Life and Public Services of George Luther Stearns, by Frank Preston Stearns.  Mr. Loring and lead pipe patent and manufacturing.

1908 Lead and Zinc in the United States: Comprising an Economic History of the Mining and Smelting of the Metals and the Conditions which Have Affected the Development of the Industries, by Walter Renton Ingalls
Page 33:  1903.  Organization of the United Lead Co., which secured control of nearly all the manufacturing plants making sheet lead, pipe and shot, 21 in number, together with a few white-lead works.

1909 The Lead and Zinc Pigments, by Clifford Dyer Holley
Page 23:  Formation of National Lead Trust, organized in 1887 for the purpose of securing intelligent cooperation n the business of smelting, refining, corroding, manufacturing, vending, and dealing in lead and all its products and carrying on all other business incident thereto.
Page 24:  Formation of National Lead Company.  Organized December 1891 for the purpose of taking over all the assets of the National Lead Trust.

1909 "Lead, bar, pipe, and sheet," Manufactures, Thirteenth Census of the United States

1909 The Water Supply, Sewerage and Plumbing of Modern City Buildings, by William Paul Gerhard
Pages 242-244:  Lead Pipes

1910 "Water-Works Statistics for the year 1909," Journal of the New England Water Works Association 24(4):419-441 (December, 1910)
Pages 440-441:  Service Pipes

1910 "The corrosive action of water on metals," by Robert Spurr Weston, Journal of the New England Water Works Association 24(4):559-575 (December, 1910)  Includes a list of references.

1910 "Studies of the relative corrosion of metal pipes by waters, especially before and after purification. - Review of literature on corrosion," by H.W. Clark and Stephen DeM. Gage, Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts 42:287-310 (1910)

1911 “Lead Poisoning and the Race,” by Sir Thomas Oliver, Eugenics Review 3(1):83–93 (July, 1911)

1913 "National Lead and the Tariff," United States Investor 24(16):21-22 (April 19, 1913)
In acquiring the United Lead Company in 1906 the company absorbed practically all competition.

1913 "Decarbonation as a means of removing the corrosive properties of public water supplies," by George C. Whipple, Journal of the New England Water Works Association 27(2):193-227 (June, 1913)
Pages 203-204:  Service pipes used in Massachusetts cities classified according to the hardness of the water.

1913 "A contribution to the study of the actions of various waters upon lead I," by Harri Heap, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 32(15):771-775 (August 15, 1913)

1913 "A contribution to the study of the actions of various waters upon lead II," by Harri Heap, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 32(16):811-815 (August 30, 1913)

1913 "A contribution to the study of the actions of various waters upon lead III," by Harri Heap, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 32(17):846-856 (September 15, 1913)

1913 "Lead for Street Service Pipes," The Metal Worker, Plumber and Steam Fitter 80:619 (November 21, 1913)

1913 "Report of Committee on Water Supplies," American Journal of Public Health 3(12):1326-1337 (December, 1913) | Also here |

1913 "Report on Corrosion of Metals," by Frank E. Hale, American Journal of Public Health 3(12):1337-1342 (December, 1913) | Also here |

1913 The examination of water and water supplies, by John Clough Thresh.  Includes information on lead pipes.

1914 “Observations of 120 Cases of Lead Absorption from Drinking-Water,” by W.W. Stainthorpe, The Lancet, 184(4743):213–15 (July 25, 1914)

1916 Wholesale Prices, 1890 to 1916 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Page 218:  Metals and Metal Products.  Lead Pipe prices 1890 to 1916

1916 An Ordinance to amend an ordinance entitled "An Ordinance for the government and protection of the department for supplying the City with water," approved June 1, 1871.  June 19, 1916.  From Ordinances of the City of Philadelphia (1916)
All such private pipes shall consist of lead pipe of standard quality.

1916 "To Preserve Water Supply," The Philadelphia Inquirer, July 3, 1916, Page 7.
City will enforce ordinance specifying lead service pipes.

1916 "Enforce Use of Lead Service Pipes," Municipal Journal (July 13, 1916) 41(2):41 (July 13, 1916)
Philadelphia, Pa.-To preserve the water supply and to help keep the streets of the city in proper condition, chief Carlton T. Davis of the bureau of water has announced that all private pipe carrying water from the public mains in the streets to buildings must be of lead from the main to the stop at the curb. The issuance of the order is possible because of the enactment of a recent ordinance by councils. At present, according to Chief Davis, about two thousand service pipes develop leaks under the paved roadways each year. This means that the water bureau loses water, the householder is subject to annoyance and the public is inconvenienced by the digging up of the streets. The bulk of service pipe leaks are caused by the use of improper material which is quickly corroded. There are more than 350,000 service pipes in use. A great many of these are of lead and give no trouble. The ordinance just passed gives the chief of the bureau of water the power to enforce the use of proper pipes.

1916 "Water-Works Service Pipes," Engineering News 76(13):594-596 (September 28, 1916)

1917  "Report of Committee on Service Pipes," presented March 14, 1917, Committee on Service Pipes, New England Water Works Association, Journal of the New England Water Works Association 31(3):323–389 (September, 1917)

1918 "Selection of Material for Service Pipe - Advantages and Disadvantages of Galvanized, Lead, Lead-Lined and Cement-Lined Pipes," Municipal Journal 45:170-171 (August 31, 1918)
Service connections generally give more trouble to the superintendent than any other part of the water works system. This trouble is of two kinds, one being the deterioration of the quality of the water, the other consisting of leaks and stoppages. To minimize these troubles, the selection and laying of service pipes and the appurtenances combined with them should receive the most careful consideration of the superintendent….
About a year ago a committee of the New England Water Works Association collected some statistics about service pipe, mostly from New England States. These showed that 22 cities had abandoned the use of uncoated iron or steel pipe, 11 of them adopting galvanized, 4 adopting lead, 3 lead-lined, and 4 cement-lined. Seventeen had changed from galvanized to other kinds, 7 of these to lead, 7 to lead-lined, 2 to cement-lined, and 1 to enameled. Six had abandoned lead pipe, 4 of them for galvanized and 2 for cement-lined. Eight had abandoned lead-lined pipe, 5 for galvanized, 2 for cement-lined and 1 for uncoated iron or steel. Twenty-seven had abandoned cement-lined, 16 for galvanized, 6 for lead and 5 for lead-lined. The changes from plain ungalvanized pipes were made almost entirely on account of rust. Changes from lead pipes were largely on account of the possibility of lead poisoning, although in some cases it was on account of expense or because the pipes did not have sufficient strength. Lead-lined pipe was abandoned on account of lead poisoning and trouble from bursting and because of the difficulty of making joints that will not corrode.
Statistics collected by Municipal Journal in 1915 showed that, of 421 cities reporting 136 used wrought pipe exclusively and 130 for a part of their services: 144 used lead pipe exclusively and 130 for a part of the services; 4 used lead-lined pipe exclusively and 10 for part of the services: 1 used cement-lined pipe exclusively and 21 for part of the services; 1 used brass exclusively and 1 for part of the services, and 2 used tin-lined in part. Of those using lead for part of the services, 11 used it under paved streets, most of them using wrought pipe elsewhere. Lead-lined pipe appeared to be used largely and cement-lined exclusively in New England. Massachusetts was the most catholic using every kind of pipe reported.

1919 "Production of Lead Pipe, 1913-1918," Prices of Ferroalloys, nonferrous and rare metals (1919)

1920 "Lead Poisoning by Water, and Its Prevention," by Robert Spurr Weston, Read August 20, 1920, Journal of the New England Water Works Association 34(4):239-263 (December, 1920)

1921 "Lead poisoning and water supplies," James F. Reade, Engineering and Contracting 45:632-633 (June 29, 1921)

1921 "Discussion of R. S. Weston's Paper: 'Lead Poisoning by Water,'" By George C. Bunker, Journal of the New England Water Works Association 35(2):126-136 (June, 1921)

1921 "Notes on the so-called action of water on lead," by John C. Thresh, Analyst 46:270-279 (August, 1921) | also here |

1921 Centennial History of Missouri: (the Center State) One Hundred Years in the Union, 1820-1921, Volume 2, by Walter Barlow Stevens
Page 426:  The Inspiration of Lead.  About 1852 the manufacture of sheet lead and lead pipe began. Within two years the entire Mississippi valley was supplied from St. Louis with lead pipe. The product in twelve months was two million pounds. It was shipped out on large reels or coiled in casks. The manufacture of sheet lead quickly reached one million, two hundred thousand pounds a year. With the raw material close at hand, St. Louis demonstrated the ability to manufacture at prices with which other points could not compete. 

1922 "A Source of Lead Contamination of Cistern Water. Report of an Examination of the Drinking Water Supply System at the U. S. Fish Hatchery Station, Ten Pound Island, Gloucester, Mass., for Possible Sources of Lead Contamination," by Leonard Greenburg, Public Health Reports 37(30):1825-1829 (July 28, 1922)

1922 "Empires perish, but lead pipe lasts" National Lead Company advertisement, National Geographic 42(3):n.p.  (September, 1922)

1922 "The action of natural waters on lead," by John C. Thresh, Analyst 47:459-468 (November, 1922) | Also here |

1922 "The action of natural waters on lead Part II," by John C. Thresh, Analyst 47:500-505 (December, 1922) | Also here |

1923 "Lead in drinking water," by Charles D. Howard, New Hampshire Board of Health, American Journal of Public Health 13(3):207-209 (March, 1923) | Also here |

1923 "Lead helps to guard your health," National Lead Company advertisement, National Geographic 44(5):n.p.  (November, 1923)

1923 “Lead in Drinking Water,” by Charles D. Howard, American Journal of Public Health 13(3):207–209 (March, 1923)

1923 Recommended minimum requirements for plumbing in dwellings and similar buildings: final report of subcommittee on plumbing of the building code committee July 3, 1923.  National Bureau of Standards | also here |
Page 221:  Where the water is soft.  For service pipes lead should be avoided because of the danger of lead poisoning; iron or steel should be galvanized, or, what is better, protected by an inner cement lining.

1924 "The Action of Water on Service Pipes,"  Wellington Donaldson, Journal of the American Water Works Association 11(3):649-662 (May, 1924).  Includes data on service pipe materials in 539 cities, with 259 (48%) reporting use of lead service pipes.

1927 "The effect of certain Illinois waters on lead," by O.W. Rees and A.L. Elder, Journal of the American Water Works Association 19(6):724-724 (June 1928).  Reprinted in Illinois State Water Survey, 1927.

1928 Recommended minimum requirements for plumbing: report of subcommittee on plumbing of the building code committee revised August 30, 1928 | also here |
Page 239:  Where the water is soft.  For service pipes lead should be avoided becasue of the danger of lead poisoning; iron or steel should be galvanized, or, what is better, protected by an inner cement lining.
Note 1: The committee, after careful consideration, learns that danger from lead poisoning generally exists only in cases where the water is soft and is charged with “aggressive” carbon dioxide. The present tendency is to free municipal water supplies of “aggressive” carbon dioxide, and where this is accomplished there is little danger from lead poisoning.

1929 "The Sheffield Water Supply," by William Terrey, M.Inst.W.E., F.G.S., General Manager, Sheffield Corporation Water Works, Perspectives in Public Health 50(4):205-214 (April 1, 1929)
Page 211:  The Sheffield Corporation enjoys the credit of being the first authority in England seriously to face and successfully overcome the difficulty caused by the action of moorland waters on lead pipes, and since the adoption of the treatment upwards of 30 years ago, no single case of lead poisoning has been traced to the legitimate use of Sheffield water.

1931 Useful Information About Lead, Lead Industries Association
Pages 74-78:  Lead in Plumbing

1934 The Action of Water on Lead with Special Reference to the Supply of Drinking Water. Water Pollution Research Board, by Horace Ingleson.

1934 "Sir Alexander Cruikshank Houston, 1865—1933," Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 1(3):334-344 (December, 1934)
His first extensive investigation, which began in 1892 and lasted for several years, was of water from the moorland gathering grounds of some of the water supplies in the North of England; it was undertaken for the Local Government Board because their medical department, acting on information contained in a valuable report written by Dr. Sinclair White, M.O.H. of Sheffield, had found reason to suspect that these moorland waters were responsible for certain outbreaks of lead poisoning brought about by the occasional capacity of the water to act upon lead water pipes. After distinguishing between lead erosion and true plumbosolvent action, Houston made a systematic investigation of the gathering grounds of 23 waterworks in Lancashire and Yorkshire. Out of 58 reservoirs on these various gathering grounds no less than 35 contained acid water possessing in a greater or less degree plumbo-solvent properties ; the source of the acid being deposits of peat. Peat had already been implicated by Sinclair White, but further research by Houston brought to light a new fact, namely, that certain bacteria naturally present in the peat and capable of growing in pure culture in a decoction of that material were the actual agents concerned in producing acid that dissolved lead. Fortunately water contributed to the supply from other sources on the moors such as springs was found to neutralize the acidity and plumbo-solvent property, and filtration of the peaty water through sand, especially when enriched with lime, was often found efficacious. In other cases the practice of neutralization with lime or whitening was essential and was adopted as a matter of routine. A vast amount of systematic research work done by Houston on this problem, and characterized by his usual meticulous accuracy and thoroughness is contained in two large reports profusely illustrated with maps and diagrams published by the Local Government Board in 1903. The reports were ably edited by the late Sir William Power, F.R.S., whose article in the annual medical report of the Local Government Board for 1887 dealing critically with data furnished by Sinclair White concerning lead poisoning cases at Sheffield had first suggested that the lead-dissolving property of the water called for the consideration of a number of biological as well as of chemical questions; a suggestion amply confirmed by the result of Houston’s subsequent research.

1936 “Lead Pipes as a Source of Lead in Drinking Water,” G.N. Quam and Arthur Klein, American Journal of Public Health 26(4):778–80 (August, 1936)

1938 "The Physiological Aspects of Mineral Salts in Public Water Supplies," by Sidney S. Negus, Journal of the American Water Works Association 38(2):242-264 (February, 1938)

1939 Earle R. Horton vs. Town of North Attleborough, 302 Mass. 137, January 10, 1939, Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
In an action for negligence against a town by a householder who contracted lead poisoning from drinking water supplied to him by the defendant, with evidence that the amount of carbon dioxide in the water, and consequently its "plumbo-solvency," were so great as to make it dangerous for human consumption after passing through the plaintiff's lead service pipe, the use of which the town's representatives had approved, the jury should have been instructed that the defendant owed the plaintiff a duty to use reasonable care to see to it that the water would be wholesome for drinking, not only at the street line, but at the plaintiff's house after passing through his service pipe.

1939 "Applicability of Various Service Line Materials," by E. Sherman Chase, Journal of the American Water Works Association 31(8):1323-1331 (August, 1939).  Discussion of the 1939 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court case.

1939 History of the Huddersfield Water Supplies, by Thomas W. Woodhead

1939 Lead products, by National Lead Company

1940 "The History of the Hydraulic Extrusion Process," by C.E. Pearson, Transactions of the Newcomen Society 21(1):109-121 (1940)
Pages 121- : Extrusion Presses for Making Lead Pipes.

1941 Lead Pipe, Commercial Standard CS95-41, National Bureau of Standards

1943 "Lead Poisoning, Lead Pipes, and Water Contamination," Bibliography and survey on lead poisoning, with particular reference to packaging, by Florence A. Brous. Prepared for the Technical Committee of the Packaging Institute.

1947 National Lead Company lead products for industry and trade

1965 "Lead Poisoning and the Fall of Rome," by S. C. Gilfillan, Journal of Occupational Medicine 7:53-60 (1965)

1971 Facts about lead and pediatrics, by Lead Industries Association.

1973 "Lead Poisoning in the Ancient World," by H. A. Waldron, Medical History, 17(4):391-399 (October 1973)

1975 Historical Statistics of the United States, colonial times to 1970, Part 1
Pages 603-604:  Series M248- Prices, New York, pig lead (cents per lb.) 1812 to 1970

1981 "Vitruvius, Lead Pipes and Lead Poisoning," by A. Trevor Hodge, American Journal of Archaeology, 85(4):486-491 (October, 1981)

1983 Lead and Lead Poisoning in Antiquity, by Jerome O. Nriagu

1983 "Control of lead, copper, and iron pipe corrosion in Boston," by Peter C. Karalekas Jr., Christopher R. Ryan and Floyd B. Taylor, Journal of the American Water Works Association 75(2):92-95 (February 1983)

1984 "Lead Poisoning: a historical overview," by Anita S. Curran, M.D., New York State Journal of Medicine 84(9):437-438 (September 1984)

1984 "Review: The Myth of Lead Poisoning among the Romans: An Essay Review: Lead and Lead Poisoning in Antiquity by Jerome O. Nriagu," by John Scarborough, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 39(4):469-475 (October 1984)

1996 Portrait of an Abolitionist: A Biography of George Luther Stearns, 1809-1867, Charles E. Heller
Page 36+: George H. Loring and Tathams lead pipe manufacturing. [This is almost certainly David Loring, not George H. Loring,]

2000 "Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective," by Sven Hernberg, M.D., PhD, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 38:244-254 (2000)

2000 Lead Pipe Rehabilitation and Replacement Techniques, by Gregory J. Kirmeyer, American Water Works Association

2001 Brush with death: a social history of lead poisoning, by Christian Warren | also here |

2002 Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply, by A. Trevor Hodge

2003 "The Significance of Lead Water Mains in American Cities.  Some Historical Evidence," by Werner Troesken and Patricia E. Beeson, from Health and Labor Force Participation over the Life Cycle:  Evidence from the Past, edited by Dora L. Costa.

2005 "Little Pamphlets and Big Lies: Federal Authorities Respond to Childhood Lead Poisoning, 1935-2003," by Christian Warren, Public Health Reports 120(3)-322-329 (May-June, 2005)

2006 The Great Lead Water Pipe Disaster, by Werner Troesken.  | Also here (subscription required) |

2008 "Lead Water Pipes and Infant Mortality at the Turn of the Twentieth Century," by Werner Troesken, The Journal of Human Resources 43(3):553-575 (Summer, 2008)

2008 "The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes A MODEST CAMPAIGN'", by Richard Rabin, MSPH, American Journal of Public Health, 98(9):1584–1592. (September 2008)

2010 "Lead and Mortality," by Karen Clay, Werner Troeksen, and Michael R. Haines, Working paper 16480, National Bureau of Economic Research

2012 "The Life and Times of Alfred Henry Allen, Sheffield's First Public Analyst," by Peter Clare and Michele Clare, Journal of the Association of Public Analysts (Online) 40:39-59 (2012)

2013 Optimisation of Corrosion Control for Lead in Drinking Water Using Computational Modelling Techniques, by Colin Hayes, T. N. Croft, Corine Houtman, Ron van der Oost, H. David Stensel, S. E. Strand, D. Wait, M. Sobsey, D. Wood, J. Funk

2013 Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America's Children, by Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner | also here (subscription required) \

2014 "Lead and Mortality," by Karen Clay, Werner Troesken, and Michael Haines," Review of Economics and Statistics 96(3):458-470 (July, 2014)

2016 "An American History of Lead Poisoning," by Laura Bliss, The Atlantic (February 12, 2016)

2016 How we ended up with lead piping and why removing it will be hard, by Irina Zhorov, February 29, 2016

2016 "Building the World That Kills Us: The Politics of Lead, Science, and Polluted Homes, 1970 to 2000," by David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz, Journal of Urban History 42(2):323-345 (March, 2016)

2016 "Washington, DC, just released the most detailed lead pipe map ever," by Sarah Frostenson, June 10, 2016, Vox | Interactive lead pipe map |

2016 "Economic Consequences of Childhood Exposure to Environmental Toxins: A Case of Lead Service Pipes in Massachusetts," by Gisella Kagy, Vassar College (August 2016)

2016 The City That Unpoisoned Its Pipes, by Anna Clark, August 8, 2016.
Forty-five miles west of Flint, Lansing is nearly done replacing all of its lead pipes. Here’s how the midsize state capital achieved a feat few other cities have managed.

2016 "Potential Flint plastic water pipe supplier has rocky legal history," by Chad Halcom, Crain's Detroit Business, August 21, 2016, Updated 4/1/2017

2016 "Lead Exposure and Violent Crime in the Early Twentieth Century," by James J. Feigenbaum and Christopher Muller, Explorations in Economic History 62:51-86 (October 2016) | also here |

2017 "The Effect of an Increase in Lead in the Water System on Fertility and Birth Outcomes: The Case of Flint, Michigan," by Daniel Grossman and David Slusky

2017 Lead Manufacturing in Britain: A History, by D. J. Rowe

2017 "Historical documentation of lead toxicity prior to the 20th century in English literature," by M.E. Jonasson and R. Afhshari , Human & Experimental Toxicology 37(8):775-788 (2018)

2018 "Lead pollution recorded in Greenland ice indicates European emissions tracked plagues, wars, and imperial expansion during antiquity," by Joseph R. McConnell, Andrew I. Wilson, Andreas Stohl, Monica M. Arienzo, Nathan J. Chellman, Sabine Eckhardt, Elisabeth M. Thompson, A. Mark Pollard, and Jørgen Peder Steffensen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, May 14, 2018.

Also see the general bibliography page, which includes links to several lists of waterworks with information about pipes.

The State of Ohio requires community water systems to identify and map areas of their distribution systems that are known or likely to contain lead service lines.

© 2016 Morris A. Pierce