|Introduction||Historical Background||Chronology||Geography||Biography||Technology||Ownership and Financing||General Bibliography|
|Technology||Cast Iron Pipe|
of cast iron water pipes through 1865
Cast iron pipes were first installed in New York City in 1799 and slowly became more common as manufacturers developed better casting methods.
1823 "Iron Conduit Pipes," by George Vaux, The American Journal of Science 6(1):173-176 (1823)
1861 "Corrosion of Iron Water-Mains," American Gas-Light Journal 2:348 (May 15, 1861).
1886 "Water Pipes," by A. H. Howland, Read December 4, 1886, Proceedings of the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia 6(1):55-69. (December, 1886). Arthur Henshaw Howland developed many water works in the 1880s and 1890s.
1895 "Tables for Estimating the Cost of Laying Cast-Iron Water Pipe," by Edmund R. Weston, Engineering News 23:580-581 (June 21, 1890)
1896 "Making Cast Iron Pipes," by Jesse Garrett, Journal of the New England Water Works Association 11(1):27-62 (September, 1896) Includes a good history of cast iron and other pipes.
1897 Report on relative merits of wrought iron & steel pipes to the National Tube Works Co, by Henry Marion Howe
1910 The story of coal and iron in Alabama, by Ethel Armes
1913 Book of standards, by National Tube Co
1918 "Prices and Depreciation of Cast Iron Pipe (with discussion)," by Burt B. Hodgman, A. F. Kirstein, J. N. Chester, George A. Main, Rudolph Hering, Charles F. Barrett, E. E. Davis, Leonard Metcalf, F. N. Connet and B. B. Hodgman, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 5(2):145-162 (June, 1918)
1949 Patent issued on
Ductile Iron pipe. On this day, patent
Number 2,485,761 was issued to Mr. K. D. Millis and others of the
International Nickel Company on October 25, 1949, for "Gray Cast Iron
having Improved Properties." It has since become known as ductile
iron. Gray iron becomes ductile iron through the inoculation
of the molten mix with magnesium, changing the graphitic carbon from
random flake forms into a more geometrically arrayed and spherical
form. The new matrix provides greater yield strength, ultimate
strength, and elongation properties.
Cast iron pipe producers had raced International Nickel to the patent office, but International Nickel got there first. Cast iron pipe producers soon began the commercial production of ductile iron pipe, which has supplanted cast iron due to its greater strength and toughness. Cast iron and ductile iron pipes form the backbone of America's drinking water distribution systems.
Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.
Landscape Transformed: The ironmaking district of Salibury,
Connecticut, by Robert B. Gordon | Also
here (subscription required) |
Pages 35-36: Holley and Coffing. They were about to deliver 200 tons of conduit pipe to Albany.
Page 61: In addition to making bar iron, they supplied cast-iron pipe for Albany's first water system.
Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association, includes several reference books about cast iron pipes that can be downloaded
The Wright Family papers at the Hagley Museum and Library contain several documents relating to cast iron pipes for water works.
Also see the general bibliography page, which includes links to several
lists of waterworks with information about pipes.
© 2016 Morris A. Pierce